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APRIL 1988 

VOLUME 3(2) 


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WORM/CD-ROM. and the infinite capacity ProDrive utilising 
immoveable 1 0MB floppies ProTape backs up to cassette at 

).3MB minute, promac products are compatible with i nix and 

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M.u Europe provides engineering, warranty service, support. 

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Apple Dealer 

(But we ain't no wimps) 

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Lower Mill Street, Kidderminster, Worcs., DY10 2JG Telephone (0562) 822222 


April 1988 


Personal Newsletter 

Timeout Series - 1 

Wizardry IV 


Timeout Series - 2 

Apprentice C 


Cirtech Promdisk Adaptor 

Merlin 8/16 

Peter Stark 18 

Audrey Friend 20 

Len Cavanagh 24 

Neil Hartley 25 

Peter Davies 26 

Mike Tickle 32 

Peter Stark 35 

Dave Ward 40 

Dave Ward 44 




Mac II P.D. Preview 

Network News 

Draw it again Sam 

The Graph Stack 


The Clip Art Stack 

Findswell for HFS 

Comic Strip Factory 




Mind & Computer 


The Perfect Duo 

MIDI Interface 

Upgrading the Apple -Pt II 

Norah Arnold 48 

Bill Pearce 50 

Tom Wright 52 


P.D. Demo 58 

P.D.Stackware 59 

Norah Arnold 60 

P.D. Stackware 64 

Richard Wilday 65 
M.Maloney & 

M.Guillaume 66 

OShaughnessy 68 

D & I Flaxman 70 

Tom Wright 73 

Bill Pearce 74 

K Chamberlain 78 

Norah Arnold 79 

I & D Flaxman 80 

Tom Wright 81 


Editor; Jim Panks 
Assistant: Graham Attwood 

Mac Editor: Norah Arnold 
Assistant: Irene Flaxman 

Advertising; Alison Davies 




Local Group News 

Hot Line News 

Local Group Meetings 


Omnia Tips 


Members Small Ads 






Inside Front 



Apple UK 






MGA MfcroSystems 






Peanut Computer 


Com tech 


Diamond Software 


Chameleon Software 


Logica UK Ltd 










Inside Back 


Back Cover 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


Time for a rest! 

For the last two and a half years I have been editing and compiling the magazine for the club on 

a temporary basis - hoping that something more permenant could be achieved. This temporary 

job has in fact accounted for most of my spare time when I have not been working, or carrying 

out the chairmans duties. 

My life has revolved around the club and I have put all my efforts to making it THE user group. 

I have now decided that I should take a rest and devote more time to my long suffering family. 

It seemed that the AGM would be the best time for me to announce my resignation so that the 

new committee can start afresh. 

I would just like to thank all those members that have contributed to the journal and helped me 

make it such a success. I wish all die advertisers every success and thank them for supporting 

me. I have enjoyed the experience and hope that you will all understand what pressures are 

involved in producing our bi-monthly magazine.. 

I am not leaving the User Group circle completely as I am setting up a local group just off the 

M25 on the Kent/Surrey/London Border. With the same sort of support I hope that this will be 

a successful venture and give me more time to explore my machine and help other users without 

the constant pressure of editorial deadlines and the associated problems. 

I wish the new team good luck and hope that the membership will support them as they have 

supported me.. 

Jim Panks 


Apple2000™is a trading name of BASUG Ltd. a non-profit 
making independent company limited by guarantee. 
The contents ol this journa I are copyright of BASUG Ltd and/ 
of the respective authors. Permission is granted lor non- 
commercial reproduction providing the author and source 
are properly credited and a copy ol the relevant journal is 
sent. The opinions and views expressed are those ol the 
various contributors, and are not necessarily supported by 

This journal is published bi-monthly by Apple2000 as a 
benefit ol membership in l-ebruary, April, June, August. 
October and December. The copy date is the 5th day of the 
month preceding publication Advertising r ales are available 
on request. 

Appte™and the Apple logo are trademarks of Apple Com 
puter Inc. Macintosh™ is a trademark ol Mcintosh Labora- 
tory Inc and used with the express permission of the owner 
Telecom Golo^is a trademark of British Telecom PLC The 
FGRCE™and Applc2000™arc trademarks ol BASUG Ltd 



Alison Davies 
Irene Flaxman 

I' ■ i : "• I : ■•..'^'itii-iiliiH.r 


Old Roan Press i tffll- 

Cover Design 

Stefan Mucha 

r.o.ltov 3* Liverpool. 
1,21 tfl'V 


Dave Ward 

Monday - Friday 1900-2100 hrs 

Local Groups 

Tom Wright 


Ewen Wannop 

April 1988 

Appie200O - For all Apple Users 

For £450 
we'll give you 

a brain 

It's a simple operation that will clearly 

Also, run programs in the background 

make your Macintosh 128K. S12K or 512K/800 while working in the foreground. 

more advanced and a lot faster. 

For £450 you now have the opportunity 
to upgrade to a Macintosh Plus with a full 

Another impressive part of your new 
Macintosh is HyperCard. 

Tlierevolutionan program that enables you 

megabyte of memory. All performed efficiently to access, customise and create information. 

by your Apple Macintosh dealer 
in a matter of hours. 

Just take your Macintosh along 
to him. 

He'll install a Macintosh Plus 
logic board. 800K Disk Drive and 
give you System Software / f 

HyperCard is unique because 
it integrates all types of media, 
not only text and graphics but 
sound, animation, voice and video. 
Using HyperCard is easy 
because it's based on the familiar 
idea of index cards. 

All will be explained 

which includes Multi Finder 

and HyperCard. With this special upgrade kit to you in the manuals we provide with your kit. 

you're fully equipped to take advan- , If you're interested in progressing 

tage of the most sophisticated 

You'll also have the means to 
attach SCSI devices such as an 
Apple Hard Disk or the new 

Can you imagine how 

to a Macintosh Plus, contact your 
\pple Macintosh dealer- 
Hell provide you with all the 

information you need and book 
vou in. Or you can dial 100 and 
isk for Freefone Apple. 
As always, when it 

useful MultiFinder will be? It'll allow you to run comes to innovative ideas, Apple are the brains 

a number of different applications in separate behind them. 

windows all at the same time. • Apple. The power tO SUCCCed. 

H'l'h riff 1 1' i' i » LOGO MACINTOSH « i i i n i \iu k ini'Hi \kh wii i infki xiih \nt i x \ \»r \\ \ x k > i»t ifflR C^OMPI'TEN INC 01988 


Below is a preview of a major new British 
collection of Postscript an which is to be 
release in the next week or two. 
It will contain four disks of up to 
date graphics useful to many 
DeskTop Publishers. The art- 
work is totally new and has a 
British team of artist working on 

Although we do not see many 
British Products especially pro- 
grammes I thought ihe members 
would like to sec something dif- 
ferent and British for a change. 

British Macintosh ClipArt 

Examples of the Macline Art 
Disks, printed on a LaserWriter 
with reduction and manipulation 
to make a pleasing display. 

The collection will be distributed by 
MacLinc and considering the amount of 
artwork the price of £65.00 + VAT is a r~ 
fair price. Over four monthes work has \ 
gone into the four disks and although the \ 
LaserWriter can not show all the detail, 
output on a Linotronic is amazing. A lot o 
work has gone into the shading of each 
piece of artwork. 

This set of disks are all in Encapsulated 
Postscript so lhat you can easily use and 

manipulate the graphics in your desktop 

publishing application. These have been 

tried in both PageMaker and RSG4 and 

work well. 

The graphics cover the whole range with 

only a very small amount being shown 


Available NOW from MacLinc - 4 disk 
set for £65.00+ VAT. 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


(Please note that all Items are compatible with all versions uf 
Apple DOS, ProDOS, CP/M and Pascal unless otherwise stated) 

Floppy Disk Drive 

140k half height floppy drive, pancake motor 
(high quality Japenese XM4 mechanism) 
this drive is a one for one replacement for the 
old full height Apple Unit. £89 

13/16 sector, twin port disk drive controller £25 

(suitable for use with both standard Apple or half height drives) 

Memory Expansion 

64k/80 COL extended text card lie 



Z-80 coprocessor card, to run CP/M software £25 

Printer Interfaces / Serial Interfaces 

Epson/Centronics incl cable £29 

Crappler + compatible incl cable £29 

RS232 serial printer card £29 
Serial plus card - suitable for use with a 
modem, with software selection of protocol 

and full Apple super serial emulation £49 

80 Column 

80 column extended text card for He, 

with 64k memory 

80 column text card for lie 

Other hardware for 11+ and He 


Heavy duty power supply 7.5 A output £49 

Add £2 for P&P (Items by carrier £8.V5 extra) and add 15% V.A.T. 

Alphatronics - Wolverley House - 18 Digbeth 

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Macintosh Plus, Mac SE and Macintosh li 

Apple llGS and lie 

Selectable Interleave, 
AppIeShare and A/UX Compatible 

• Rugged reliable design 

J 20,000 power on hours MTBF 

• Whisper-quiet fan cooled system 

• Platinum Colour 



Macintosh II • 40 MB or 80 MB ■ 29 ms Average 

Access time 
Macintosh SE - 40 MB - 29 ms Access time 

EXTERNAL: 20 MB to 960 MB Hard Drives 

MacStack: 20 MB - 65 msec access time 
MacStack: 40 MB or 80MB - 29 msec access 

TapeSlack: 40 MB SCSI Tape Backup System 
with Data Compression. 

PowerTower: 320 or 640 MB • up to 1 6 MD of 
Cache - 0.5 ms Avge Access. 

All Mac drives include HyperCard, 
SCSI utilities and HyperCard Stacks. 

Also available for Apple IIGS and He 
with host adaptor. 

Prices start at just £499.00 for 20Mb. 

Plus Special Offers on DTP Systems, 
Network Systems, Memory Upgrades 

Bidmuthm Technologies Ltd 
Brent House 
214 Kenton Roai 
Middlesex rj!A3 

Telephone 01-907 8516 

Apple Authorised Resellers 
Level 1 Service Centre 

for Macintosh, Apple II, Mac II, LaserWriter 

'Epqperts in J^ppCe Tjmonsion 

Local Group 

Tom Wright keeps us all up to 
date on the local group scene. 

Well it's that time again and I am happy to 
report that in general the health of local 
groups appears to be quite good, there is 
more good news of emerging groups and I 
am still hoping that somebogy will volun- 
teer to regenerate the Glasgow group. 

Ron Hoare, contacted me the other 
night tn let mc know about the continuing 
developments in the 'Apple-Dorchester* 
area. As a result of Ron's continuous ef- 
forts an inaugural group meeting is to be 
held on May 3rd, the venue will be as listed 
in the contacts list and all Apple fans will 
be most welcome. The venue has some 
Apple ][ machines there which will be 
available for anyone who doesn't bring 
take their own. Please check with Ron 
before going along to the meeting to en- 
sure that there are no last minute changes 
of any kind, Apparently Ron has been very 
busy spreading the Apple word in his part 
of Dorset both as part of his professional 
activities and on a personal basis; results 
are that not only is the educational orchard 
expanding but some of the people he has 
spoken to will be going along to the meet- 
ing.. My best wishes to the group. 

I understand that the revived Liverpool 
group got off to a good sum, do contact 
them and find out what you are missing. 1 
have to apologise to Irene Flaxman for 
having given the wrong telephone number 
in the last issue, the correct number has 
now been included in the contact list as 
051-928-9097. Anyone interested should 
contact Irene at the number provided to 
find out more about the group. Users of all 
Apple machines will be welcome. Good 
luck to all our members in the area who are 
joining this new group. 

My own involvement with MidApple 
has reduced a little recently due to the fact 
that I am no longer able to find time for 
committee work. The A.G.M., took place 
at ihc last club night, followed as usual by 
the annual 'junk* sale which always in- 
cludes a high proportion of very good buys 

for members. I suppose the fact that I 
noticed that all items on sale were Apple ] [ 
related is a reflection of my own moving 
interests ihese days. Users of all Apple 
machines arc welcome at MidApple. 

I had a very striking reminder of the 
helpful and friendly nature of user group 
members the other day when Bob Hall 
phoned from the U.S.A. As some of you 
are aware Bob did a lot of work for the 
Gateway club over at Mildenhall while he 
was over here, his friendly knowledgeable 
manner was always a pleasure and his 
friends missed him when he returned to the 
U.S.A. Believe my surprise when out of 
the blue he phoned up to say that he has 
found a book that I asked him about a year 
or so ago. What is more he said that he will 
be back in the U.K., briefly and will bring 
the book with him! You can'tbuy that sort 
of help folks, if you are in the neighbour- 
hood of the Gateway club go along and sec 
them. The members there arc all very 
helpful and nice people. Oops ! ! while 
typing this lot I have just found my own 
membership renewal reminder for the 
Gateway club, if you are reading this 
honoured Chairman the money will be in 
die post this week, honest. 

Funny that I was moaning last issue 
about the lack of activity from Apple U.K., 
and the User Group Council, well people 

who know mc will realise that the fact that 
I was moaning wasn't funny it was the fact 
that the Council had been resurrected even 
while 1 was moaning. With the newly 
formed committee we will hopefully now 
see some meaningful action from die 
council which hadn't previously made 
much of a showing. 

I understand that among other things 
revealed from a poll of Apple U.K em- 
ployees was tlie opinion that most user 
groups arc heavily into software piracy 
and that dealers don't like us too much 
because we rob them of profits by selling 
disks etc. Now I admit to being unfamiliar 
with almost all of Apple U.K's employees 
but I do wonder how many of them are 
members of local groups and where they 
gained die experience that tells them that 
there are such a lot of pirates in the groups. 
Obviously there have been software pi- 
rates in ALL areas including 1 don't doubt 
several well known companies for many 
years but it does seem a bit of a check for 
this son of accusation to be Uuown so 

The bit about user groups doing deal- 
ers out of sales also seems a bit strange, I 
seriously doubt that any Apple dealer 
would pick up our sales if we stopped 
selling disks as we sell low priced products 
to people who in the main wouldn *t pay the 

Mas Business Mac Group 

A new group for Macintosh Business users will meet every 
four weeks starting on Wednesday 4th May 1 988 at 1900hrs. 
The meeting place is The Sir Mark Collett Pavilion, Heaver- 
ham Road, Kemsing, Sevcnoaks, Kent. (5 mins from M25 - 
map in last issue ). First meeting will concentrate on general 
business topics. 

All Macintosh Users are welcomed. 
More info on *<;*! «** m «ft fc§* MSI 


Apple 2000 - For all Apple Users 


very high prices that arc common for disks 
from dealers. 

One thing that we are certainly not into 
is the cheap direct import of Apple 
branded goods from the U.S.A which is an 
activity that one commercial organisation 

which Apple U.K see fit to have on the 
Council docs engage in; what is more 
Apple have even announced that the 90 
day US warranty will cover goods im- 
ported in that manner. Perhaps Apple U.K 
see organisations robbing dealers of the 
profit margins from sales of Macintoshes 
as a good thing ? 

Many groups have benefited from 
Mary Ainsworth's visits, and those of her 
colleagues and I am sure that we are all 
hoping that those visits will continue to 
provide us with excellent product demon- 
strations, but, I would like to think that 
Apple U.K haven't forgotten that most of 
the users who have seen their demonsira- 

Local Group 


tions have already bought properly im- 
ported Apple equipment at profit to both 
the dealers and Apple U.K., and will do so 

The vastdifference in approach to user 
groups between Apple Inc.. in Cupertino 
and Apple U.K., continues to be a source 
of concern for many of us. The excellent 
Apple UscrGroup Connection Newsletter 
which is published in the U.S.A will hope- 
fully be one of the things that jogs the 
memory of ihc new council members 
while they are busy developing whatever 
is going to emerge. Believe it or not, my 
personal thanks to Apple U.K as well as 
the recently elected Council officers; for 
the work that is being done. 

I'm not sure whether or not the next bit 
belongs in this column but I can't resist 
mentioning the faci that Apple2000 now 
has David Szctcla, Manager of Apple 
Computer Inc., Developer services listed 

as a subscribing member. The arrival of 
David's letter was one of the things mat 
cheered me up during my recent spell of 
wrestling with crutches and walking 

By the time this column next appears 1 
expect to sec another group listed. Appar- 
ently during the recent workshop at 
Kcmsing several users were very keen to 
start another group so we should soon sec 
yet another addition to ihc circle of 

Please remember that if you are think- 
ing of starting a group and want help we 
will help where we can. I am still in proc- 
ess of getting ready to move house so if 
you have any difficulty reaching me that 
will be the reason, Irene Flaxman will help 
pass on messages if necessary (see con- 
tacts listing). Until the next issue. 

PublisfrltL In less than an hour. 

Introducing PUBLISH IT! A full-featured, fully 
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word processing, page layout, and graphics! 

r or all of its state-of-the-art ability, PUBLISH IT! is incredibly easy to learn— 
efreshingly so. PUBLISH IT! combines the familiar Macintosh User interface, 
fimeworks Quick-Start Mini-Manual, a full complement of Help Screens, and the 
jracticol WYSIWYG (What You-See-ls-What-You-Get) display— all designed to 
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Macintosh User Interface: Pull- 
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md use the program quickly. 

Flexible Page Layout You 

;an overlap, reposition, resize, 
ind reshape text, columns and 

Built-in Fonts: Over 1280 
>ossible type-style combinations. 
Jptfor bold, italic, underlined, 
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ir subscript characters. Type 
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Premium Quality Printouts 

• Built-in Word Processor: All the 
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• Text Importing: Load documents 
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• Graphics Importing: Directly 
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April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

Hot Line 


Many members who have contacted the 
Hotline have expressed the view thai there 
could be more articles etc. on Apple // 
computing. On the other hand many 
members that I talk to seem to have some 
unique knowledge of a particular Apple / 
/ program thai would appear 10 be of inter- 
est to many other users. The solution to the 
problem of lack of Apple // computing 
articles seems simple ! In fact if you send 
in enough Apple // stuff the meagre resul ts 
of my lucubration could be committed to 
balaarn !! 

The inclusion , in the Hotl ine News last 
time, of die complaint regard ing the Apple 
Ilgs upgrade chips was rather unfortunate 
since many members contacted me to say 
that they have had their machines up- 
graded a few days prior to the appearance 
of Apple 2000 magazine. It's a pily that 
this article has to be written before it 
appears and may be at least 4 weeks oui- 
of-daie. The fact remains, however, that 
we have had to wait many months without, 
apparently, any official word. The answer 
seems simple; Apple Computer (UK) 
should state their position at the outsei 
even if the news is bad! After all they have 
probably got perfectly good reasons for 
apparently holding-back. 

Some members who have contacted 
me regarding the 'date' problem with Pro- 
DOS version 1.1.1 seem to think that this 
is due to a bug and inculpate Apple Com- 
puter. Actually nothing could be further 
from the truth. When ProDOS was intro- 
duced Apple programmers incorporated 
into it a little routine that would provide 
the year for those clock cards ihat did not 
provide such information. Most clock 
cards fall into this category, incidentally. 
This routine can only work for 6 years 
at most and it seems impossible that a 
better one could be devised. The early 
versions of ProDOS work from 1982 
through 1987 and 1988 will therefore 
appear to the algorithm as 1982! Although 
Apple Computer haven't advertised this 
as a potential problem they have updated 
ProDOS and the later versions have been 
adjusted to work until 1991. The best 
answer is to gel the latest version of Pro- 
DOS V 1 .4 from your dealer or elsewhere. 
Alternatively, if you must for some reason 
Still use an old version of ProDOS that 
only works until 1987 please see Hotline 
News in Apple 2000 magazine, February 
1988, for the patch. 

One of the difficult areas is interfacing 
AppleWorks with printers. Since many 

Apple // computer users choose Apple- 
Works we get a lot of enquiries regarding 
such interfacing problems. If you havehad 
problems with interfacing AppleWorks 
with a particular printer which now works 
please lets us know how it was done as it 
might save others many hours work. 

Martin Lawrie of FREELAND wrote 
to us regarding publishing programs for 
the Apple ][ plus and look-alikes but the 
address on the letter was insufficient toen- 
able us to write and I don't have access to 
the membershipdatabase. Unfortunately I 
don't know of any publishing programs 
dial work on the Apple ][ plus. Programs 
such as Publish It are very new and require 
at least an Apple //c 128K. If anyone 
knows better please lei us know. 

Dave Ward is the Apple2000 Hot Line 
Manager and he is our front line man for 
queries of a technical nature. If he can't 
help you he is sure to know someone who 
will. Please HELP Dave by caling be- 
tween 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. - queries outside 
these times can be left with the Adminis- 
trator on fBBl Viiowii! and will be dealt 
with as soon as possible. 







For the NEW Apple LaserWriters 

£85.00 each 

3.5" / 40 disks £0.99 

3.5" /»0 disks £9.99 

5.25"/ 50 disks £«.99 

5.25"/ 100 disks £9.99 


8.5" x 10.5" APPROXIMATE SIZE 
£4.49 each 


Apple2000 • For all Apple Users 

April 1988 



mm The Power to Expand 


plusRAM- 16 is the newest RAMDisk card from CIRTECH, designed to let your Apple keep right on growing! 
plusRAM-16 plugs into any standard slot in your Apple IN . He orllGS. and comes complete with one megabyte 
of memory ready installed. It is fully socketed to allow you to plug in extra RAM chips when you need more 
memory, right up to sixteen megabytes. 

plusRAM-16 is a RAMDISK card which works just like an incredibly fast disk drive, to make programs operate 
at electronic speeds. It's like having instant access to all your data! 

pli isRAM —1 6 is Aiiinmatir.rillY used by AppleWorks lor 
desktop expansion. It's also supplied with lots of 
extra-special enhancements for AppleWorks (vers. 1 .3 
& 2.0 US) 

A lull function calculator which pops up instantly | 

on the screen any time you need to use it. 

A massive 4 2K print buffer which can he assigned 

to any printer. 

Lets you use your AppleMouse for full Cursor 

control and menu selection. . 

Automatic saving of large desk top files to multiple 

Onscreen date and time display (from any ProDOS I 

compatible clock). 

Lets you run AppleWorks 1 .3 on the II + (with 1 6K 
language card and 80 column card). 

H plusRAM— 16 uses custom logic circuits and 
advanced design to give high reliability and much 
lower power consumption in your Apple than other 


The RamDesk Manager, with its Macintosh-like window 
environment, lets you divide the huge plusRAM -16 memory into 
several independent RAMDisks from a choice of six different set- 
ups. Each RAMDisk can be used to store different programs or 
operating systems. To save time when copying programs into 
a RAMDisk, you can use the special RamDesk Manager restore 
function which can load a complete floppy disk in under 12 
seconds! You can easily move from one RAMdisk to another 
and when you use one RAMDisk. the others are 'invisible' , Any 
sequence of RamDesk Manager functions can also be set to 
execute automatically each time the RamDesk Manager is booted 
to save you even more time' 


plusRAM -16 is supplied with the unique RamDesk 
Manager which lets you control all that extra memory 
so you can change instantly between programs as 
often as you like, without having to use slow drives. 

plusRAM-16 is supported by more software than any 
other RAMcard. ProDOS, Pascal 1 3 and Cirtech CP/M 
Plus automatically recognise plusRAM 16 and full 
support is included for D0S3.3, CP'M 7 20b/?. ?3 rind 
Pascal 1.1/1.2. 

plusRAM- 1 6 is designed to observe Apple standards 
to guarantee maximum compatibility. 

plusRAM-1 6 is easily e xpandable using standard RAM 
chips; from one to four megabytes with one megabit 
chips, and up to sixteen megabytes with forthcoming 
four megabit chips 

SptM- PboI 


■ ■ : * 

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ii«vn '(*« (htlfffni H'WD.ui AppWttvtvU OUb •**•«:* <« CP'M «w» 

tit ipwxiii OAMPe** M-*u**. Om>Wi Hi ••" -«• •»»* <»»• •-»i»i*»-l « J8* *i*U 


plusRAM 16 is just one of the 

plusRAM -1 

If you don't need more than one 
megabyte, then plusRAM - 1 is the 
card for you! With all the same 
features as plusRAM- 1 6, it comes 
with 256K of RAM and is 
expandable to one megabyte. 
(RamDesk Manager requires a 
minimum of one megabyte.) 
from only £99.00 

EVER NEED - £229.00 

comprehensive range of CIRTECH 

plusRAM GS2 and GS8 

RAMcards specifically for the 
Apple IIGS memory expansion slot 
to add up to 8 megabytes of extra 
memory. Complete with powerful 
AppleWorks enhancements and 
the facility to instantly boot 
programs with the PROMDisk and 
ROMDisk Adaptors 

from only €99.00 

RAMcards and storage devices: 


A major advance in storage 
technology, plusDISK is unmatched 
for sheer speed and performance 
all the speed of a RAMcard and 
the permanent storage of a disk 
drive. Supplied with 128K and 
expandable to 1 megabyte, fits any 
standard slot in a IIGS, lie or II + . 
from only £128.00 

Contact Cirtech for full information on these exciting products 
and details of special trade-in/trade-up offers available. 

(Prices exclude VAT) 

CIRTECH (UK) LIMITED, Currie Road Industrial Estate. Galashiels 
Selkirkshire, Scotland, TD1 2BP Telephone (0896) 57790 

Telex 265871 (Attn, 84:CPDQQ1|- Telecom Gold 

Source Mailbox -AAH55* 

CIRTECH (UKl limned 1988 Apple M- , He. IIGS. ProDOS. DOS 3 3 and AppleWorks are registered 
trademarks nf Appln Computer inr CP/M is ;i registered trademark nt Digital Research Inc 

Local Group 
Meeting Details 

Contact Jim Panks Tel: tnit^inwr 

Venue Sir Mark CoJIett Pavilon, Heaverham Road, 

Kemsmg, SWfiftOaks. Kent. 
Meets First meeting 4th May at1900hrs 

Next meeting 1st June at I900hrs 

Contact Irene Flaxman Tel; *»»«#*«*- 
Venue Check with Irene 
Meets 2nd Monday of each month. Check 
with Irene (or news 


Contact Ron Hoaro Tel: HWH 

Venue Newton Magnus & Co., Arrowsmith Court 

Station Approach. Broadstone 
Meots FIRST MEETING May 3rd, at 7.30pm 
PLEASE It't Ron know that you are going before the 
date of the meeting so that he can update you on 
arrangements It necessary. 


Contact Colin Withingion Tel: 


Contact Bob Miller 
T Veluppiilai 

Tel: is:iJ! ? H 
Tel. itei* «» 


CONTACT Philip Dixon TEL . lutta 
VENUE None — operates as a postal group via a 
monthly newsletter. 

CONTACT John Thomas Tel : l;ll> - 
VENUE R. A.P. Woodbridge 
MEETS 7.00pm first Tuesday of each month 



VENUE Decimal Business Machines. Three 

Queens Lane, Reddiffe 
MEETS 7th of each month, or the Friday nearest 

il the 7th falls on a weekend. 

CONTACT RodTurnough Tel 
VENUE Michelin Sports Centre 
MEETS 2nd Wednesday of each month 


Contacts X Ian Archibald Tel; !<-^ :l; '" Ir -' 

Mac Richard Boyd Tel: ijs&uamirnr 

Venue Parish Hall of St Mark's Church. Barton 
Road, Cambridge. 

Meets Fortnightly will alternate between Apple ][ 

and Mac Example dates are Mac 3-2-68 
Apple ][ 17-2-88.Check with Ian w Richard 


CONTACT Graham Attwood Tel : 

VENUE 51 5, Umptield Road, Warlingham. Surrey 

MEETS 7.30pm on the third Thursday. 

CONTACT Nick Helm Tel : '*»,. =n»rm* 
VENUE Wilfbrd Cricket & Rugby Club. Nottingham 

MEETS 8.00pm on the first and third Wednesday 


CONTACT Ricky Pollock Tel : »•■ *tf irmi 

VENUE Proteus Micro Systems. 55. Fredenck 

Street, Edinburgh. EH2 1LH 
MEETS Monthly, chock with Ricky. 


CONTACT Pat Bormingham Tel:' R»M*t 
VFNUF The Y.M.C.A.. Victoria Road. Chelmsford 
MEETS Third Friday of every month 


CONTACT Phil Herberer Tel: &Wifi HI 
VENUE Bob Hope Recreation Centre . 
R.A.F Mildenhall 

MEETS AMS conference room, Mildenhall base. 
Normally at weekends, check with Verne. 


CONTACT Miket Hollyfield Te! ■ ' 

VENUE Thames Valley Systems , 1 28 High 

Street. Maidenhead. Berkshire, SL6 tPT 
MEETS 7.00pm on the second Monday 


CONTACT Norah Arnold Tel: ram; i »» « 

VENUE The Old School, 1 , Branch Road, Park 

Street Village, St Albans. Hens 
MEETS 8.00pm on the first Tuesday. 


CONTACT Richard Daniels Tel : «-":> ?" 

VENUE Miaospot 5-11. London Road. Maidstone. 

MEETS 7.30pm on last Monday of each month. 

CONTACT Chns Williams Tel: n •«"■ 
VENUE Studio 8, Whariedale Projects. 47. 

Wharfedale Road. London. N1 9SE 
MEETS 6.00pm, first Wednesday of every month. 


CONTACT Maureen de Saxe Tel : 

VENUE Room 663. London University Institute of 

Education, Bedford Way, London, WC1 
MEETS 6.00pm on the second Tuesday. 

CONTACT Lorrain Thomback Tel : <^ ::: 
VENUE Apple Centre South Wales. Longctoss 

Court, 47 Newport Hood, Cardiff 
MEETS 7.00pm on the first Thursday . 


CONTACT Tom Wright Tel : ihnr.-*tti»fc 

VENUE I.T.E.C., Tildasley Street, West Bromwich. 

MEETS 7.00pm on the second Fnday. 


CONTACT Mick Toy Te! : 

VENUE O.P.S.. Acorn House, Little Oaks. 

Basildon, Essex. 
MEETS First Monday of every month 


CONTACT (van Knezovich Tet:Ua*MK*'* 

VENUE Spring Grove House, West Midland Safan 

Park, Bewdley, Worcestershire. 
MEETS 8.00pm on the first Tuesday . 

CONTACT Philip Dixon Tel: iww-mma.- 
VENUE AppleCentre North East Pontoland Road. 

Pontetand. Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
MEETS First Wednesday of every month 

CONTACT Jim Rosco Td:«Mfi'»t- 
VENUE Horse & Jockey Pub., Winwick Road. 

MEETS First Monday of every month 

CONTACT David Huckle Tel :UW 
VENUE Devenll Computers (Dealer) 

hoc House, 34-40, West Street, Poole, 

Dorset. BH15 1LA 

MEETS Four times per year. 


CONTACT Gooff Parson Tel : in \w*\ 

ir/itaJiuHWi (Mi**) 
VENUE January meetings were on the 8th and 
22nd Contact Geoff lor details. 



CONTACT Mjmi n« » " -». WVWS 

'mint- UtiwJlVibi -vy l,,l 
VENUE Christ Church Hall, Crowe 
MEETS Fortnightly, Fridays. 7.30pm to 10.00pm 


CONTACT Bob Bown Tel:i"^<t- 

VENUE Shakespeare Pub. Braunstone Lane. 

MEETS 7.30pm to 10.0pm on first Wednesday . 


CONTACT Max Parrot l«« 

Day in- --«■ W' 'i-ot Jura. 

VE NUE Staff House {2nd floor), University of 
Manchester, Institute of Science and 
Technology, Sackville St, Manchester, 

MEETS 8.00pm on tho 3rd Thursday of month 

CONTACT JohnTracey Tel :<«»» .*w 
VE NUE Hill Crest School. Sim ms Lane. 

Netherton, Near Dudley. 
MEETS 7.00pm on the 2nd & 4th Thursday. 



CONTACT AlanCurtiss Tel: I u to 
NOTE There has been more activity in this area 
recently, I have been unable to contact Alan for some 
time so check with him yourself. 



CONTACT Peter Sutton Tel : t«iSn#rft*i* 

A number of keen Apple users in contact with each 



Apple200O - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


gets serious. 

Price tumble on Blythwintop 
Mac Products, honour. 

The MacSerious Company have taken 
action lo stop the grey importing of soft- 
ware that they arc official U.K. distribu- 
tors of. 

In a strong message to those that engage in 
this activity Jim Mangles, Managing Di- 
rector of the company has wri tten in form - 
mg infringers that he will take legal action 
if they do not stop. 

MacS erious has not done this in an attempt 
to keep prices up because in a statement to 
Apple2000 Jim Mangles states that the 
prices of software from his company will 
now be only 10 to 15% over the dollar 
price. The reason for th is is the import and 
transportation costs. 


Apple Computer have announced the re- 
lease of a sei of developement tools to 
allow easy connectivity between IBM, 
mainframes and minis and the Macintosh. 
The three new products are Mac Worksta- 
tion, MacAPPC and a Coprocessor plat- 

MacWorkstation will allow Macintosh 
aplicauons to be produced on a host ma- 
chine without the programmer knowing 
the Macintosh programming techniques. 
The Mac can ihen be used as an intelligent 
host terminal, with applications running 
on die host machine. MacWorkstation is 
shipping now at a price to in-house corpo- 
rate users for a cool S2.5000. Developers 
can have a licence for just $5,000. 
MacAPPC will enable Mac developers to 
communicate with IBM micros, mini and 
mainframe computers. MacAPPC will 
allow communications with any machine 
which uses the LU 6.2 protocols. 
This is another step in Apple's attempt lo 
woe users of other operating systems and 
is a welcomed addition. 

Apple Computer UK have announced new 
pricing on the Macintosh range. The new 
prices came into effect on 25 th January but 
were too late to put in the last issue. 

Macintosh II Prices. 

With single 800k drive £2995 

With interna! 40MB drive £3795 
Macintosh SE Prices. 

With twin 800k drives £1995 

With internal 20MB drive £2595 

Macintosh Plus £1495 
Other Products. 

Tape Backup 40SC £1195 

Apple 1 3" Colour Monitor £695 

External HD20SC Drive £795 

External HD-10SC Drive £1295 

External HD80SC Drive £1995 

Internal HD20SC Drive £695 

Internal HD40SC Drive £995 

Internal IID80SC Drive £1795 

For a full price list of all Apple products 
contact your local Apple Dealer. 

Early Times 

Uarly Times is Britain's first quality news- 
paper for young people and it is produced 
on die Macintosh. 

The cover price of 50p brings a lively 
quality newspaper with editorial aims of 
both informing and entertaining the 8-14 
year old age group. 

The editorial team headed by Carole 
Woodford use Macintosh DTP solutions 
to write and produce die finished artwork. 
The content of the newspaper includes 
news, sport, music, computers, model 
making. DIY, games, fashion and many 
special features aimed at informing widi- 
out talking down to the young reader. 
The issue sent with the press information 
was impressive and contained most of 
what was promised. Early Times is avail- 
able from most newsagents. 

Ryth Software have been awarded the 
British Design Award for Omnis 3 Plus. 
The British Design Council Award judges 
chose Omnis 3 Plus largely because of the 
careful attention paid to the details of its 
design. The judges were particularly im- 
pressed by the way it exploits the facilities 
of the Macintosh for which it was de- 
signed. Thesoftware manuals, sales litera- 
ture and product packaging also received a 
mention. Niroo Rad, Blyths Sales and 
Marketing Manager has the following 
words of encouragement to Omnis Users 
and poteniial users "We listen to what our 
users say and operate a formal system - 
using Omnis 3 Plus, of course - to record 
and identify die needs of our users. Trie 
'wish' list is a vital ingredient in the process 
of developing new and improved prod- 

Blyth Software have one of the best user 
support programmes in the software mar- 
ket and combined widi excellent software 
deserve this award for British excellence 
in an international market. 
Applc2000 is run on Omnis 3 Plus and wc 
are proud to have Blyth as an Apple2000 
Recommended Dealer. 

The latest member of the group is Apple 
Computer Inc. Wc have received a request 
for a subscription and of course are de- 
lighted to oblige. 

The list of members grows daily and hav- 
ing Apple Inc join such honoured mem- 
bers asSteve Wozniak makes usfeel it's all 


Dealers, Distributers etc send us your 
press releases and news . 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



QuicKeys now 

CE Software have released version 1.1 of 
the superb utility reviewed in ihe February 
issue of Apple2000. 

The new features now make it easier to use 
and you need not go into the Control Panel 
to create macros. This major update has 
answered some of the user feedback. 
It just shows that some software publish- 
ers can respond quickly to users needs and 
suggestions. CE Software have made a lot 
of friends in the Mac World and by this 
sort of response they will certainly make 
many more. 

The ncsv QutckPanel allows the user to 
make macros from within any program 
without wailing for the Control Panel 
which can take a while if you have a large 
complicated System. You can also cut. 
copy and paste macros which can be help- 
ful when creating sepcrate sets for individ- 
ual programs. 

QuicKeys has risen in price slightly but 
still remains one of the best value for 
money utilities around today. 
For more details and current price ring 
MacLine on 01-642-4242 

New Mac Mag 

The latest magazine to hit the streets for 
all Macintosh Business users is called 
Apple Business and is published 
monthly by International Magazines pic. 
It is not going to replace MacUscr but 
the first issue did show some promise, it 
is very glossy and fairly well presented. 
If you wish to receive a copy why not 
drop International Magazines a line and 
ask to be included on the free subscriber 

The address is: 
International Magazines pic. 
Kiln House, 210 New Kings Road. 
London SW64BR 

No sign of new software house 
will Claris find a U.K. home ? 

Claris still have not found a distributor for 
die new Apple software which is being 
released shortly. Although they had a big 
launch recently the distribution in thcU.K. 

is with Apple U.K. 

Rumours of heat being generated between 
P:&P Micro Distributers and Microsoft 
over Claris have been denied hut still wc 
wonder who will be given the job. The 
latest rumours arc that Claris may set up 
its own distribution channels. That would 
appear to be the most expensive option but 

something needs doing shordy or we will 
be left in the same old situation of wailing 
months for new software. 
The new updated offerings include 
MacWritc 5.0, MacDraw Plus, Mac Proj- 
ect and a new MacPaint. MacWritc 5.0 
includes an interactive British Spelling 
Checker and MacDraw Plus has a layer 
system which will help when drawing 
complex artwork. 

Expect to see these new goodies by the 
middle of the year. 




Th*> r»m4»rd In word processing vim th» 

simplicity of th# Macintosh® personal computer 

B*scd on the original program by Encore Systems. 

Gpell rinder** © 1 907 , Microly t1o* , lr* . 

UFO Sy*tern*, ln«., Xerox Corp. 

All rights reserved. 

Macintosh* drivers by Millennium Computer 

Vvrsivn 5.0 January, 1 90Q 

© 1983, 1907, 1966 CLARIS** Corporation 

New for the Macintosh - Claris MacWritc Version 5.0 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 







We are now into the second glorious month of 
the Tabbs Bulletin Board. Bringing you the best 
of Apple II , Apple llgs, Macintosh and Lisa. With 
news views and public domain software. 
Tabbs comprises a full public and private 
message system, complete with specialist areas 
for all Apple machines. Tabbs also includes 
debating areas, help files, and a full up- 
downloading file area. We want to help you get 
the best of your machine, modem and programs. 
Give us a ring, we are only a simple phone cat I 
away, day or night. 
We service the European Apple community. 


TABBS Sysop-EwenWannop 

24 hours on V21 V22 V22 bis V23 8N1 

(0225) 743797 




AppleWorks power without AppleWorks price!!! 

Trio offers three essential programs on a single 
disk: a powerful word-processor, a simplc-to-usc 
spreadsheet, and a flexible database. And because 
Trio is integrated, you can move data from one 
program to another 

Now you can insert spreadsheet figures Into reports, or 
mertfe letters with mailing lists; combine research with 
statistical Information, or insert data Into form letters. 

Trio is available for Apple //e 128K. //c (ProDOS based) 

What you sec is what you pay:* 
price Includes UK postage/VAT 
Export price £50.39 E&O.E 

MGA M&tcfryte** 

KENT TN26 2AR <** 



Open Apple b Tom Weianaafs mommy newsletter tor knowledge* 
able Apple li uiars. irs trim out packed ogrit win Apple II lore, humor 
le-iTBfS tips, advice, and solutions 10 your pro&tems Compared to 
otltM Appta II pubUcatkwts Open-Apple has the highest new-Klea- 

per-issue ratio, the clearest writing, tne (urines! cartoons, the loraes 
moon, the best warranty (all your money back it you're not satisfied). 
3rd it takes up the least short space 

II cue #49 

All of the new Beagle Bros Tfmeout 
v.- rii"< ul ApplcWurhs cniidnierncnls die 
good. UliiaMacros is incredible. Bui 
Qukkspell b a work of liue genius. What 
makes It so good is ils user interface. 
Alter checkinq three dictionaries, it gives 
you a list o( all words il couldn I find. You 
can selecl which words to Ignore, which 
to fix. which to odd to your custom dictio- 
nary, and which to look at in context. For 
more, sec the Fcbraury 1988 Opcn- 
!;>/■/«• 4.3. 

From our fan mail: 

*Lce Raesly directed questions and 
added his input to a panel of fuui Apple II 
stalwarts. ...A brief recounting of their 
B H W ti a may be of interest to many of 

Q. What niaua/incs arc available? 
A. WAr Journal, A-, AppleWorks Journal. 
Byte, CAII Apple, inClder, Open-Apple, 
nibble. (After WAP Journal Open-Apple 
was the unanimous favorite.)" 

Washington Apple Pi Journal 
Washington D.C.. January. 1088, page 10 

Try two months free! 

OTMCccdoM&rMoNy Try qpaMpple at our expense Cut out or pnou- 
cocy irvs couoon mmaiiiousloratnM Mro-monm mat suteenDKKv 



Dm ii is Tips 

Printing Problems 

Compiled by Blyth Technical Support 

Print Record -How to 
get the last page? 


The last page in a report doesn't 
get printed when using 'Print 


Omnis doesn't know that the 
report has been completed, 
and is still busy assembling the 
next page of output. 


You have to execute a * Print 
Totals' command to let Omnis 
know your report Is done. 'Print 
Record ' just takes a sna pshot of 
the Current Record buffer using 
the currently selected Report 

Whether you use it to pri nt single 
records, or many records in a 
loop, a 'Print Totals' is necessary 
to force the printing of the last 
record/s, the Totals section (if 
any), and the issuing of the final 
form feed. 

Printing across the 


In the Report parameters win- 
dow, Omnis won't allow you to 
specify more than one record 
across the page. 

LaserWriter hangs 
after a few records! 


The LaserWriter only prints some 
of the records in a selective 
report, then hangs. 


The LaserWriter timed out while 
Omnis was searching for the 
next record that matched the 
search criteria. (Older Laser- 
Writer drivers have shorter time- 


Specify a sort order for the re- 
port format. This doesn't slow 
the report printing appreciably, 
and eliminates the delays be- 
tween records. Omnis doesn't 
need to sort indexed fields, so if 
the field you sort on is indexed, 
you will need to specify a sec- 
ond sort field as well. (i.e. a two- 
level sort) 


'Columns per record' multi- 
plied by 'Records across page' 
has to be 240 or less. 


Reduce the 'Columns per rec- 
ord' value. 

Printing reports to 
the LaserWriter 


Printing a report to the Laser- 
Writer causes a system bomb.. 


Omnis saved job and page 
setup information from the 
printer driver with each report 
format when it gets created. 
Because Apple's LaserWriter 
drivers are not always upwards 
compatible, when you up- 
grade to a later version of the 
driver, the report crashes be- 
cause of version-specific code 
that was saved before. 


Ensure that Omnis regenerates 
the report info using the new 
driver. Do this by gog to the 
report parameter screen, se- 
lecting both Job and Page 
Setup in turn, and hitting OK for 

ImageWriter Printing 


The system bombs during print- 
ing to an AppleTalk 
ImageWriter. Specifically, the 
second report of the day 
causes a system crash. 


Version 3.24 and earlier versions 
require you to print with fonts 
whenever you print to the 
AppleTalk ImageWriter. 


Get an upgrade to version 3.25. 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Peanut deals for your apple 


80 column for 11+ with built-in 

Softswitch, auto 40/80 switching with 

inverse video chip £38.00 

80 column 64K extended for //o lowest 

ever value £26.00 

Disk drive controller runs 13 or 16 

sector disks automatically £26.00 

16K RAM card £29.00 

Print-buffer card, 32K, including cable 


PAL TV colour, composite VHF TV 
signal and monitor outputs 


Z-80 card, runs all CP/M. lowest ever 

price £29.00 

IC tostor. plugs into remote 2IF 
socket, tests over 500 74 and 4000 

ICs £99.00 

Memory chip tester similar to IC 
tester but tests all common memory 
chips and programs EPROMS and 

PROMS £119.00 

EPROM programmer, programs all 
EPROMS up to 64K. Compares, 
verities, copies, reads, ROM based 
software included £47.00 


Clock card II+, //e DOS 3,3/ProOOS/ 
Pascal compatible, Mountain 
compatible, made in UK, 
outstanding valuo £29.00 


Philips monitor 80 12" screen 

green £79.00 

amber £85.00 

Champion printer card including 

cable £39.00 

Champion printer card + 64K buffer 


Cache box 256K buffer parallel 


PlusRAMXtra 1Mb £189.00 

80 column for //e with 64K mem 


Z-80 card ■ £39.00 

He Z-80 module for CP/M 


256K Memory card expandable to 

1Mb £89.00 

NEW! PlusDISK 128K RAMdisk 
expandable to 1 Mb. Very fast, perma- 
nent storage £99.00 

CP/M Plus system £99.00 


Epson LX800 printer 180cps, 25 NLQ 

incl tractor £245.00 

Epson EX800 printer 300cps. 50 NLQ 


Brother 1509 , £449.00 

Panasonic 1081 £189.00 


Limited second hand equipment with 

guarantee. Ring for details. 

© Plug In cards 
O Hardware 
O Printers 


Disk notcher £4.95 

Disk storage box (100 disks) 


Till/swivel monitor base 12" £12.95 

Monitor top File tray £7.95 

Joystick all metal, self centring, fino 

trim, II+ or//e, state which £19.50 

ASAD Super Joystick, fits IBM or 
Apple, self centring, line trim .£24.50 
Power Supply 7.5A heavy duty 



Peanut diskettes, Fuji-brand SSDD 
top quality 5 year guarantee, packs of 

10 (add £1.00 carriage) £13.95 

25 pack unbranded SSDD, factory 

tested disks £22.50 

FREE!! Disk notcher with any 3 
packs of diskettes ordered. 

Disk Drive double-sided, double- 
density. 640K capacity, inc. patch sAw 
for Pascal 1 .1. CP/M 56. CP/M 60. 
ProDOS 1.1.1, Diversi-DOS, DOS 3.3. 
Runs from standard controller 


We stock and support many software 
packages for the Apple at discounts. 
Please ring for a price on the package 
you require! 

O Monitors 
© Software 
O Second hand deals 




For more information: 

Peanut Computer 



WF13 1BR 

(No damp roqui rod) 
Nofmal Dofcvory: 
Low Mil. Dowsbury WH3 3LX 
Taiacom Gold r? ihh ioi9fl 
Fai (0324)498300 

Phone 0924 499366 
(24 hour answering service) 

Money back guarantee. Add 15% VAT to all 
prices. Carriage (for orders under £100) - £3.00 

(for orders over €100) - £8.00 Monitors £8.00 - 
Printers £8.00. Prices may fluctuate with C rate. 
goods will be charged at prices ruling at date ot 

We will match the price of any item elsewhere, 
provided documentary proof is given, and the 
item is ex-stock. Dealer enquiries wolcomo inc. 

Peanut is the trading tide of Golf Computers Ltd 

Apple // 


Personal Newletter from 
Softsync claims to 
bring the exciting world 
of DTP to the Apple // - 
Peter Stark sees how 
well it does the job. 

Personal Newsletter is 
available from MGA 
Microsystems, Pear Tree, 
Appledore, Kent TN26 2AR 
The price is £59.95 
inclusive of P&P and VAT. 


It can be both useful and 
Interesting to have the abil- 
ity to use a micro for pro- 
ducing short newsletters and the 
like, containing both text and 
graphics. Of course, this also of- 
fers you the chance to reveal that 
personal touch of artistic creativ- 
ity which had previously remained 
unobserved by your friends. Per- 
sonal Newsletter is a recent 
product of Softsync, Inc. which 
could well appeal to those of uswho 
have an Apple Tic. IIGS. or He (with 
128K and 80 column board). 

General description 

Personal Newsletter was sup- 
plied to me as three non-protected 
5.25" ProDOS disks: the Master, a 
Fonts/Samples, and a (double 
sided) Clip Art disk. These are 
supplemented by an excellent 192 
page manual. Either one or two disk 
drives can be used. Relatively 
little disk swapping is involved, so 
one drive is quite sufficient in 
practice. For certain operations, a 
mouse is useful, but is by no means 

Text layout and creation 

A major feature of Personal 
Newsletter is that it enables you to 
create rectangular 'windows' 
which hold the text that is entered 
and eventually printed. The main 
page is treated as "page 0*. and up to 
nine further windows can be piit in 
at any one time. Text can be placed 
in any window, and words wrap 
round at the line ends (i.e. the 
window borders) as with any rea- 
sonable word processor. Various 
text handling facilities are avail- 

able, such as cut. copy, and paste. 
Each window can be moved arou nd 
on the page very easily, and can be 
superimposed on other windows if 
you wish. Text can be either typed 
in or imported from ASCII text 
files created by other word proc- 
essor programs such as Apple- 
Works. If the text is too long for the 
originally selected window, you 
can arrange for it to flow into other 
windows if you like. This makes it 
very easy, for example, to produce 
text in two or three columns. 


The style of chosen parts of the 
text can be varied to some extent 
(bold: underline: outline; italics: 
centred; or left- or right-justi- 
fied, etc.). as can the spacings be- 
tween lines and between charac- 
ters. The claim in the manual that 
Personal Newsletter 'comes with 
many fonts on the Fonts/Samples 
disk' is something of an over- 
statement. There were, in fact, 6 
fonts on this disk: a useful num- 
ber, but not what most people 
would call 'many*. 

An important point to be aware 
of is that all of the text on a page has 
to be of the same font and size (12 
point). If you change the font at any 
stage, the whole of the text on the 
page is changed accordingly. Tills 
seemed something of a limitation. 
Admittedly, it is usually not 
good practice to have lots of differ- 
ent fonts on a single page, but it 
would have been nice to have the 
chance to use at least a couple of 
different text fonts and/or sizes 
per page. If you want to have larger 
text, for headlines etc., you need to 
use and magnify text in graphics 
mode (as mentioned below). 


Apple2000 - For ail Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 


To complement its text handling 
facilities. Personal Newsletter 
has a number of graphics options. 
One of these options allows you to 
draw, using a variety of brushes, 
patterns, and tools, and then to 
move the result onto the text page. 
As a second possibility, you can 
import standard or Double Hi-Res 
screen areas created by other pro- 
grams. A third option enables the 
user to import graphics created 
using programs such as Print Shop 
or Dazzle Draw, or from the Clip 
Art disk which is supplied with 
Personal Newsletter. Further Clip 
Art disks in the same series are 
available from Softsync, Inc. 

Graphics which are originally 
on DOS 3.3 disks must first be con- 
verted into ProDOS format. In all 
these cases, the imported graphics 
can be moved about the page with- 
out any difficulty, and can be edited 
quite simply. Relatively large 
graphics need to be edited in sec- 
tions, as the graphics editing win- 
dow is limited in size (Just over 
one inch in depth). 

The graphics facilities also in- 
clude letters and numbers as 'text' 
- which is useful for headlines etc. 
The same six fonts are available in 
graphics mode as in the normal text 
mode, but more type styles are 
available In the graphics mode 
(nine, including: bold; reverse; 
outline; and shadow). Text' pro- 
duced via this graphics mode con- 
sists, of course, of graphics im- 
ages. It is not confined within text 
windows, and cannot be edited as 
simply as the ordinary text; in- 
stead, it has to be edited in the same 
way as other graphics. However, 
graphics- type text can be moved 
around on the page very easily, and 
its h eight can be Increased in steps 
so as to produce reasonably large 

However, the enlarged versions 
of letters and numbers are not very 
smooth In outline. With graphics 
mode 'text', you can in fact arrange 
to have several different fonts on 
the same page (and even in the same 

graphic), by successively loading 
different fonts from the files on 
disk. This can be a little laborious, 
but it does work, and can give In- 
teresting effects. 

I found that with certain of the 
imported graphics, the Image on 
the screen is not an accurate rep- 
resentation of the version that 
would be printed out on paper. In 
these cases, expansion to double 
height is needed in order to give 
acceptable printed results. This 
potential pitfall was not spelled out 
very clearly In the manual, al- 
though it is hinted at. 

With Personal Newsletter, it is 
also important to be aware that the 
text does not automatically flow 
round the graphics. Careful plan- 
ning is therefore needed to avoid 
unwanted overlapping of text and 
graphics. In general it might be 
best first to decide where to posi- 
tion your graphics, print out a 
draft with Just the graphics, and 
then arrange the text windows to 
suit your needs. 


The manual supplied with Per- 
sonal Newsletter deserves mention 
- and favourably. Quite a lot of care 
has clearly been taken to make it 
simple for even the near beginner 
to learn how to use the program. 
The descriptions of how to do what 
are generally easy to follow, and 

the reference section ('Definition 
by Commands') is helpful and 
clear. Another useful chapter. 
'Hints And Tips', gives sensible 
advice on how to design and struc- 
ture newsletters and other docu- 
ments, and what sort of general 
style to aim for. 

Printing, and end results 

Personal Newsletter can be used 
with quite a number of dot matrix 
printers. The appearance of the 
printed material obtained is gen- 
erally attractive and quite accept- 
able for many purposes. The text 
fonts are pleasant to look at. and the 
Clip Art usually comes out satis- 

Just occasionally, some other 
types of graphic (e.g. from a digit- 
ized picture) may look a little dis- 
appointing in the printed form, but 
this is probably the fault of the 
graphic Itself rather than Per- 
sonal Newsletter. 

Overall Impressions 

As someone who is very far from 
being an expert on computers, I 
enjoyed Personal Newsletter and 
found it pleasingly easy to pick up 
and use. The manual was refresh- 
ingly clear and helpful. 

If you are mainly interested in 
having a reasonably priced and 
simple means of producing quite 
acceptable newsletters and the 
like. Personal Newsletter is well 
worth considering. 

On the other hand, if it is im- 
portant to you to be able to place 
several different fonts and sizes on 
the same page, or to have such fa- 
cilities as automatic wrapping of 
text around graphics, or to be able 
to print out with a LaserWriter, 
then you may well prefer to think 
about other alternatives (proba- 
bly more expensive!). 

Either way. you might also 
think about Personal Newsletter as 
an uncomplicated but reasonably 
versatile aid to practising and 
building up your skills at desk top 
publishing. mm 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

Timeout Series 

Timeout is a new set of 
7 enhancements for 
AppleWorks - 
Audrey Friend has tried 
them out and reports on 
the first three. 

□ I am one of the Apple 2000 mem- 
bers who 'took up the challenge' 
thrown oul by J im Panics and Jon 
Gurr in the December issue of our maga- 
zine. I asked i f I might test three of the new 
TimcOut applications from the point of 
view of the computer user rather than that 
of the computer 'buff. 

TimcOut is ihe latest scries of en- 
hancement programs for AppleWorks, 
and of the range of seven applications I 
have tested three, namely DcskTools. 
QuickS pell and UltraMacros. I have tested 
them on my own Apple He, equipped with 
a Flipper Card, 3.5 disk, Timcmaslcr 
Clock and Imagcwriler, (set-up A); and on 
an Apple He equipped with a plusRAM 
256K card, no clock card and two standard 
drives, (set-up B). With the former set-up 
AppleWorks, QuickSpcll, UltraMacros 
and DcskTools were all loaded into mem- 
ory and left a desktop of 927K, instead of 
the usual 1012K without TimcOut. 

The Timeout Series 

The TimeOut series is published by 
Beagle Brothers, the package for each 
program comprises a 5.25 "floppy" disk 
and a 3.5 disk, neither of which is copy 
protected, and a user's manual. Unfortu- 
nately the box in which they are packed is 
rather over sized and it was somewhat 
alarming to hear the contents rattling 
around when they were delivered. One 
manual was in fact slightly damaged. 
Disks and manual are, of course, copy- 
righted. As is their custom. Beagle Bros, 
do remind purchasers to make the usual 
working copy, after writc-protecting the 
master Disks. 

TimeOut is the controlling program. It 
is compatible wilh AppleWorks version 
2.0and later, but not with foreign language 
versions of AppleWorks. It is reported to 
be compatib 1c with most enhancements to 
AppleWorks, including Super Mac- 

roWorks, AutoWorks, Applied 
Engineering's desktop expander, 
Checkmate's desktop expander, and the 
Pinpoint accessories. 

TimeOut itself is a once and for all en- 
hancement to the AppleWorks Startup 
disk, after which the appl ications required 
by the user can all be copied to the startup/ 
program disk, if working with a 3.5 inch 
disk, or to a Timeout Applications disk if 
working with standard drives. Even better, 
for those users who have large memory 
systems , die startup disk can be configured 
so that all the applications are loaded into 
memory at boot-up. Standard drive users 
may have more than one applications disk, 
provided that they all have the same name, 
e.g. /TimeOut, the multiple disks may be 
loaded sequentially into memory in a large 
memory system , or used directly from disk 
if memory is at a premium. 

Explicit instructions are given in ihe 
manual to enable the user to install Time- 
Out, and 1 experienced no problems in 
either the installation or gelling the appli- 
cations 'up and running' with sei-up A 
(.see above), but became extremely frus- 
trated in trying to get it installed in set-up 
B . In fact I failed m iserably to do so and the 
whole system 'crashed'. A telephone call 
to Cirtech solved die problem. The 
plusRAM modification to the startup disk 
is still required, but the modification 
which is made to the AppleWorks pro- 
gram disk should be omiited by plusRAM 
users who wish to use TimeOut. Thereaf- 
ter installation is perfectly straightfor- 

All die applications work from within 
AppleWorks and it is very pleasant indeed 
not to be faced wilh learning complicated 
new commands. Access lo all of the Time- 
Out applications is by Open-Applc-Es- 
cape, and with one or two exceptions the 
return to ihe current file is achieved by 
pressing Escape. Once oa-esc ^^ 

has been pressed die TimcOut *^» 


Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

menu pops up, superimposed on the cur- 
rent screen, and the application required is 
selected ei ther by number or by highlight- 
ing it and pressing return. Most of ihe 
commands and key combinations which 
are valid for AppleWorks have precisely 
the same functions in TimeOut applica- 
tions. In general, the manuals are clear and 
easy to follow, but there arc some in- 
stances where I feel that more information 
is warranted. 


This is as one might expect a spelling 
checker. The first stage is to specify the 
location where TimeOut can find the dic- 
tionaries, a process which is simple and 
well documented in the manual. Iliere are 
three dictionaries, an internal one, a main 
dictionary of some 80,000 words, and a 
custom one, initially of IK, to which the 
user may add words at will, the ultimate 
sizeof which is limited only by the amount 
of spaceavailable on the disk. The user has 
a choice of checking the entire document 
(if more Ulan 100K more than one pass will 
be required), or a screen or a single word. 
Queried words arc displayed as 'un- 
known* words. The options available to 
deal with queries arc to correct in context, 
(cither a single word or all 
repetitions of that word), to 
replace the word, add it to 
the custom dictionary or 
ignore it. I ran a lest docu- 
ment of 3658 words con- 
taining several technical 
terms and checked and cor- 
rected the entire file in 
lmin.35 sees. (48 words 
were listed as unknown). 

A Quick memory list - 
can be enabled/ disabled. If 
it is enabled QuickSpell re- 
members every word ii 
looks up in the mam and 

custom dictionaries. The next time Qu ick- 
Spcll is used in the same session, the words 
in the memory quick reference list are not 
checked again in either dictionary. This 
can save a lot of time if several checks are 
made on the same or similar documents in 
one session. The quick reference list does 
however take up some room on the desk- 
top, so if memory is at a premium it should 
be disabled. 

Another option is Get suggestions. 

This presents a list of possible spellings, 
usually the most likely ones at the begin- 
ning of the list. If the required word ap- 
pears pressing space bar whilst the word is 
highlighted and then pressing Return, will 
result in the instant replacement of the 
word. If the suggested spellings list has not 
been interrupted as above, it will print all 
the likely (and some unlikely) spellings up 
to 29 at a time. If the word required hasn't 
appeared a further list can be called by 
selecting 'more' which appears at the end 
of the list. 

It is difficult to spot double words with 
a visual search, but QuickSpell will find 
them very quickly. If any are found it will 
tell you at the top of the unknown word list 
how many double words there are, and 
when option 5 is selected from the menu 
they will be shown wiih the first word 

The custom dictionary isstored on disk 
as a standard ASCII file, this can he im- 
ported into an AppleWorks Word Proces- 
sor file and edited. The manual gives full 
instructions for this process. 

This is an excellent enhancement for 
AppleWorks Word Processor files. Of 
course the main dictionary gives Ameri- 
can spellings but this is no real problem 

File: Tlaeoul 

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rev I •■ REU I E U/flDO/CH AHC.E 

..|..„ |— .|- — I— -I— -I— -I 

per Inch: 17 chars 
n width: O.S 
eorgln; 1.5 I nehee 
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Unjust if led 

I am one 
throen out by 
etna. I asked 
fr>6B the p*)n 
eoaputer 'buf 
TlBeOut i 
liorii. nnd ,-. I 

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oan Rpple I la 

TlaeOul Mciu 




noco C'oapi lar 


Coaa Conuart*" 


Hocro Opt Ion* 



ii . 

Mote Pod 


Dalo Converter 


Papa Preulee 






01 ory 


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En ue lope ftddne** 


Utilll Iks 


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Uord Count 

©f the Rpp 

Jla Ponka 

if I sigh 
I of vie- 
f '. 
■ the lata 

iK" conga .-, i aauan oppi ions 
ola. QuiekSpall and Ullronoeros 
, aqulpped alth o Flipper Cord, 3.5 disk. 

i noun teaieta tnrae, 
I hou* tasted that on ay 
Tlaeiaater Clock 

Tyoa nuaber. or use arroaa. then press Return 

Timeout Main Menu 

once the English versions have been en- 
tered in the Custom dictionary. The man- 
ual gives clear instructions with regard to 
installation, configuration and the actual 
use of QuickSpell, but it's so easy to use 
that you will probably Find the manual 
redundant after your first session. I have 
one small criticism: there is word count on 
the QuickSpell disk, it's a logical place for 
it to be, but the advertisements for Time- 
Out do noi say that it is there. It is adver- 

tised on the DcskTools disk, and this 
probably sells more appl ications packages 
but I can't help feeling as a user that it's a 
bit "naughty" that some users may buy 
DeskTools when it appears from the "ads" 
that it is the only way to get Word Count. 


This is another truly excellent pack- 
age. As a very lazy typist I have long been 
addicted to the use of macros and having 
progressed from MacroWorks to Super 
Macro Works I thought I was content, until 
I tried UltraMacros. 

Before using UltraMacros a further in- 
stallation procedure is necessary, that of 
adding UltraMacros System to the startup 
disk, and thereby making available a de- 
fault set of macros. The process is simple 
and the manual gives very clear guidance 
on the macros, and how to edit the default 
set for the user's own requirements. There 
are several Files on the disk which arc Ap- 
pleWorks Word Processor files and these 
should be loaded, printed if you have a 
printer and read carefully, since they con- 
tain useful examples and explanations 
which are not in the manual. Otherwise 
some surprises may occur. There is also an 
apparent option to install a Pathfinder 
System instead of the for- 
mat a disk option in the Ap- 
pleWorks other activities 
menu. This is actually noth- 
ing but a menu of options 
available through another 
software package costing 
several dollars. Another good 
reason for reading the awp 
files on the disk, because one 
of ihem describes this option 
as a demo. 

Space does not permit a 
really full description of the 
package, but ihere are some 
very useful macros, like 
Solid-Apple-Delete which will remove 
the character under the cursor and move up 
the characters from the right to Fill the gap. 
There is another for sequentially number- 
ing a series of spreadsheet cells, yet an- 
other copies labels or values from one 
spreadsheet cell to another. Spreadsheet 
columns can be shrunk or expanded, or 
sorted alphabetically or numerically, or 
telephone call details entered automau- 
cally in a file, to give just a few examples. 

Ho in Rent* 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

The user can record macros for use in the 
current application with theopen-applc-X 
command, and they can be saved and used 
again. The current macro set can be loaded 
into a b lank Word Processor fi le edi ted , re- 
compiled and used all without leaving 
AppleWorks. The current macros can also 
be saved as a new default file. There is a 
macro for automatic start-up, which I 
modified for my own use and it now also 
adds 3 files lo die desk lop which need to 
be there each session. Another which I 
have written will open a data-base file, 
give it a name, enter the names of fifteen 
categories, go to multiple record and enter 
99 blank records. Not bad with one key- 

Another great advantage which Ul- 
traMacros has over its predecessors is that 
one is not confined only to solid-apple- 
(key) combinations for macro functions. 
Keys normally reserved for open-apple, 
and those solid-apple re- 
served macro keys can all 
be used with both-apples- 
(key). There are open-apple 
macros to enter the date, the 
time, change case. Local 
macros for use in any one of 
the AppleWorks applica- 
tions can be written > as well 
as global macros to use in 
them all. In Facta single key 
e.g. 'D' could conceivably 
have eight different macro 
definitions. This gives 
enormous potential. It is 
also possible with this 
package for the program- 
mers to write macros containing calls, if- 
then-else, pecks, pokes, strings and nu- 
merous other such terms which leave wc 
non-programmers gasping for air, but on 
the other hand it's not necessary to be a 
programmer to use UltraMacros effi- 
ciendy. One can also have macros, which 
may be left sleeping or rudely awakened 
when required. 

There are various 'options 1 also avail- 
able on this disk, ranging from setting the 
'blink rate' of the cursor, to switching the 
screen off automatically in die absence of 
a key press for a pre-determined length of 
time, or saving the current macros as a 
default set to activating a 'key-lock' for 
disabled users. (There are several others). 

Once more a super package, useful and 

user friendly. Again an unadvertised 
'bonus'? • the Data Converter. 


There are thirteen applications in this 
package, viz. Calculator, Calendar, Case 
Converter, Clock, Data Converter, Dialer, 
Envelope Addresser, FileEncrypter. Note 
Pad, Page Preview, Puzzle, Word Count, 

Selecting Calculator brings to the 
screen a 'calculator* on therighthalf of the 
screen and a 'tape' on the left hand side 
upon which calculator results may be 
'printed'. In addition to the usual 0-9 digit 
keys, and 4 basic math (unctions, it offers 
+/-, square root, and memory keys. There 
is one memory, with In, Add, subtract and 
recall keys. Clear entry, equals and clear 
all keys complete die customary key- 
board. The maximum number of digits 
which may be displayed is 20, and the 

File: Tlaeout r*vl*a NOTE PRO Eacop* 

.«...). ...|....f....|....|....|...»|...-t— -I— -I---- 
-— -— ---Chora par Inch: 17 chords 

Plotan eidth: 8.5 inch** 

Left aorgin: 1.5 Inch** 

— — — --Botto* aopglnr 1.5 Inches 
--------Cent re*1 

■■■■■■ — Dnubla Soaca 


Raul «a/fldd/ Chang* 

— Unjust I flea 

I oi on* of lha Rppi»2O00 ■ 
tfiroan out by Ji* Ponfc* and 1 Jor 
zln* I asked if I alghl te»t I 
fro* (he point of ulc* of I h* e 
co*put*r 'buff * . 

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Uorkt* ond o' the pqnQe of souf 

noaely OaaVToola, OulckSoal I on 
□an AodIp II*. equipped *lth a r 

This note pod con be repositioned 
on KPttn alth Ofl-D ond or row k«y» 

mm. J.J U I )> . 


Typo entry, or use • co**onds 

TimeOut Notepad 
sequence of operations; follows standard 
algebraic logic. Calculations may be 
printed to the tape, which may be edited, 
but a very good aspect is that the result of 
a calculation may be entered directly into 
an AppleWorks Hie (WP.DB or SS.) by 
pressing E(nt). You cannot get back to the 
current file from calculator by pressing 
escape, only 'O' for off will do that. 
Simple to use, clear explanation in the 
manual, very good. 

Calendar, valid from 1910 to 1999, is 
a very handy little 'pop-up'. If you have a 
lot of appointments or you like to make 
daily lists of the tasks you have to under- 
take, there are facilities here for you to 
enter them, have the appointments 
chronologically ordered, allocate priori- 

ties to the listed tasks, and mark the status 
of those tasks e.g. completed or carried 
forward. Escape goes to die previous level 
of activity, several escapes to go from task 
mode to current file. It works, it's good, 
and well documented in the manual. 

Case Converter. I really don't know 
what use this will be to anybody. It will 
convert from upper case to lower case or 
vice versa. It will capitalise a sentence, or 
a word. But, it only works on the entire 
document. If One really wants every word 
capitalised or every letter in the same case 
then this works fine. Otherwise I can't 
help feeling dial it's a bit of a 'stocking 

Clock. If you have a clock, this will 
clear your current screen and show you the 
time and date; if you haven ' t a clock it will 
show you the date you initialised at boot- 
up.and atimeof0:00. If you have a clock 
you probably don't need this application, 
and if you haven't it's of no 
use anyway. 

Data Converter. I 
thought 'good this will save 
a lot of lime on transfers 
from Data Base to Spread 
Sheet' - something which I 
do frequently. It worked 
fine on the small samples 
given on the TimeOut disks, 
but when I tried it on some 
data extracted from my own 
files it was a disaster. The 
data used was some 150 
records (well below the 
maximum capacity of the 
Clipboard), there were 3 
text categories, and 5 numerical catego- 
ries. All the textcategories transferred per- 
fecdy, three numerical categories ap- 
peared on the spread sheet as ai 1 zeros, and 
some of the entries in the remaining 2 nu- 
merical categories had zeros substituted 
for the original data. This represents a 60% 
plus loss of data and is totally unaccept- 
able. This was version 1.1. and I have 
referred it back to MGA who have prom- 
ised to contact Beagle Brodiers. Perhaps 
there is an update. Certainly I would not 
trust this version in my type of work. The 
manual devotes only half a page to this 
topic, and gives no indication that certain 
types of data may not transfer properly. 

Dialer. I cannot comment on this one. 
because I do not have a modem. I could 



Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

give a quote from die manual on wiial il is 

supposed to do, but feel that it is probably 
better to leave it for some one to report on 
in the light of experience. 

Envelope Addresser. Again, I won- 
derwhy it'sincludcd. Perhaps in thcStatcs 
more primers lake kindly to envelopes 
than do most of ours. It works by present- 
ing a facsimile envelope on screen to 
which the address can be transferred from 
the document cuirendy on screen. Once 
transferred the address may be reposi- 
tioned on the envelope, and there is a facil- 
ity for typing in extra lines, e.g. *For the 
Attention of ...'. 1 looked at it on screen, 
but the Imagewriter doesn't like enve- 
lopes so I have not actually tried to prinian 
envelope with it. I have to say that I feci a 
facility for addressing labels one, two or 
three across would have been infinitely 
more useful. There's not much point in 
having mail merge, or window envelopes 
and messing about trying to print individ- 
ual envelopes. 

File Encrypter has been included to 
protect confidential work. It works on the 
password system. When encrypt is se- 
lected die user is asked to enter an 'encryp- 
tion code' which may comprise any com- 
bination of characters. As each is typed in 
an asterisk appears on screen. When reiurn 
is pressed the code is requested as a veri- 
fication procedure. When this is done if 
the two entries agree the entire document 
is encoded, andappearsasgibbcrish on the 
screen. Decryption is exactly the same 
procedure. Provided the codes are entered 
in exacdy the same format each time it 
works fine. If lower case is entered at the 
decryption stage and upper case has been 
used at the encryption stage, which I did 
deliberately to see what happened, then 
the file is 'clobbered* which is what one 
might expect. It's simple to use, and well 

Note Pad, as its name implies is a little 
note pad which pops up on screen when 
called, very useful for making the odd 
notes when an idea comes into your head 
right in the middle of working on a totally 
different file. It offers 10 lines of 40 char- 
acters, and 32 pages. It can be edited or 
saved to disk, and retrieved from disk at a 
later time. Users unfamiliar with ihe use of 
pathnames may havealittlc difficulty with 
this one, but once the pathname principle 
is followed there should be no problems. It 

works, it's welt documented and poten- 
tially useful. 

Page Preview gives a graphic repre- 
sentation of the AppleWorks Word Proc- 
essor document using dots for each char- 
acter. I tried this with great anticipation, 
and i t seemed fine. The manual asks one to 
try this out with a large file, so I did. I used 
a file of some 4,000 words and gleefully 
previewed it, and having 'escaped* from 
preview, pressed oa-p to print to the 
Imagewriter. 1 was astounded to get half a 
page of double spaced text and dien a form 
feed to the next page, where I again got 
half a page of textetc. Granted the parame- 
ters were set for double spacing, so I ex- 
pected that, but I did not expect half a 
blank page. I then spent some considerable 
time investigating diis problem and found 
that at the AppleWorks default W.P. set- 
ting the correlation between the preview 
and the hard copy was reasonably good. 
However as the parameters were changed 
with regard to margins, characters per 
inch, spacing etc the correlation between 
the two decreased pro rata. With 17 cpi. 
1.5" left margin, 1" top and right margins 
and 1 .5" bottom margin there was a differ- 
ence of some 6 pages between the number 
of pages on preview, and those actually 
printed using oa-k to determine page 
breaks instead of printing directly alter 
preview page formatting. A nodier discov- 
ery was that if page breaks calculated with 
oa-K are present in the document, it is im- 
possible to get preview mode. Although 
the TimeOut menu is called and preview 
selected it simply returns to the current 
screen . Once the page breaks are cancel led 
by deleting one of them, preview can be 
called again. Likewise if preview is used 
first, oa-k page breaks cannot be calcu- 
lated unless existing page breaks are can- 

The annoying thing about this is that 
the manual devotes only one page 10 the 
absolute basics of using this application 
and gives no suggestion that such difficul- 
ties might arise. If preview has been de- 
signed to work only with standard settings 
then surely thisshould be made plain indie 
documentation. As a non-programmer I 
do not know if it is possible to make this 
thing work equally as well with non-stan- 
dard settings, but I do know that if the 
presence of this application had been in- 
strumental in causing me to buy this pack- 

age I should feel that I had been 'caught*. 

Puzzle - sorry* but I feel that this is just 
another Tiller'. It's the old fifteen tiles on 
a sixteen square matrix, which are 
scrambled when the game starts, and the 
aim is to get them back into the original 
arrangement with the aid of the arrow keys 
and return. Yes it works, but perhaps il 
should be on a games disk, rather than a 
'work oriented disk'. 

Word Count - excellent, very fast, 
very easy. Counts the number of words, 
number of characters, average word 
length and tells ihe user the current line. I 
wish it also gave the number of unique 
words as does another well known docu- 
ment checker. As previously stated this is 
also on the QuickSpell disk. 

Finally the Utilities. 

This isoneapplication which of neces- 
sity appears on every applications disk. It 
is menu driven, and enables the user to 
configure various aspects of the 'system* 
which has been set up. Such matters as the 
locations where TimeOut may find the 
various applications when they are called, 
a facility for dumping to and from mem- 
ory, for changing the memory status of 
applications, e.g.from memory to disk 
based and vice versa. Changing the name 
of an application or sorting the menu arc 
all dealt with through this facility. 

In conclusion, it must be said that 
TimeOut offers a great deal to the Apple- 
Works user. In general it is possible to add 
a great deal of power, and supply some of 
those facilities which have been sadly 
lacking. It is a great plus dial they work 
within AppleWorks, and an additional 
benefit is that the oa-H command can be 
used to print screens, a facility not avail- 
able in some other enhancements to Ap- 
pleWorks. I unreservedly recommend 
QuickSpell and UltraMacros. It is proba- 
bly inevitable that however objective one 
tries to be in looking at software the sub- 
jective element creeps in, and from my 
own viewpoint DeskTools was very dis- 
appointing, and I cannot recommend it in 
its present form. I al so believe that it would 
be beneficial to the potential user to be 
informed of all the applications available 
in each package so that before buying they 
may know precisely which packages are 
required for their own specific ~ 

needs. • 

April 1988 

Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 


Reviewed by Len Cavanagh 

The Return Of Werdna 

Really I was trying to get hold of a copy of Ultima V, when 
the friendly chaps at Strategic Plus convinced me that it still 
didn't exist. So, I was persuaded to purchase Wizardry IV, my 
V\ rst foray into this series of Adventure /Role Playing Gaines. On 
opening the package you find three double sided disks. 

This isa large adventure. Although sidcFis only an advertise- 
ment. We then come to the players handbook. Half of this booklet 
is headed 'The PrequcI ' . which gives you a rundown on how you 
happened to be sleeping ten levels down in a dungeon. The 
second half of the booklet explains how to make copies of the 
master disks and how to save your game. You also get a spells 
reference card in die package and that's about it. There is no 
description of commands thai the game will understand, but you 
do get dire warnings that if you haven't played a Wizardry game 
before, then you have no chance. This game has a bit of a twist on 
the normal theme. You as Werdna are not the good guy, and 
whilst you are sleeping, in bursts a gang of do-gooder adventur - 
ers. On waking you are naked and defenceless and this is where 
your adventure begins. Having read everything in the box and re- 
alizing how limited my chances were (having never played Wiz- 
ardry 1 2or3),Isetoff.Mostofthekcyboardcommandsrequircd 
are fairly intuitive, so that on awakening I managed to gather a 
party of monsters and fight everything in sight. The screen shows 
you in a three dimensional maze, while any information required 
is displayed in windows. It is very important to map your 
progress in this game (graph paper is provided). Each level on 
Wizardry IV has a different type of maze and layout. On reaching 
a higher level you gain hit points and can collect more powerful 
monsters to assist you. On each level there is only a finite num- 
ber of opponents and once they are all killed, you arc at liberty to 
explore that level in safely. But, if you should Save your game, 
then all your opponents are rejuvenated, and ready to do battle 
once more. 

On each level there are special locations where objects arc to 
be found, which are necessary later in the game. The only real 
problem with this game is the method utilized for copy protec- 
tion. SIR-TECHprovide you with a twenty one page booklet with 
hundreds and hundreds of codes in it. Every time you reach a new 
level, you are asked to decode a twelve figure code from the 
booklet. This wouldn't be too bad, but the booklet is coloured 
dark red and the codes are written in black, which achieves it's 
aim at being impossible to photocopy, also it's almost impossible 
to read and soon becomes quite annoying. My conclusions are, 
that it isa cracking game, just asaddiciive as the Ultima series and 
if anyone out there can help me to get further than level four, I 
would be delighted. 






APPLE ][ + OR //e Power Supply. £32 
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Apple Interface Card (most makes). £25 
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Any Apple][ series 

Beagle Bros TimeOut series 

integrated AppleWorks applications 

7 N EW AppleWorks enhancements that are more advanced, more 
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Turn spreadsheets into great looking graphs inside AppleWorks! 


Print with great looking Macintosh fonts from insido AppleWorks! 


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The most powerful macro program ever written for AppleWorks! 


Print spreadsheets sideways from inside AppleWorks! 


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Hassocks. West Sussex BN69PL 

Telephone Hassocks (07918) 2531 (24 hours) 
Telex: 934999 TXLINK G Quoting MBX 079182531 


Apple20O0 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 


A test-flight by Neil Hartley 

S larglider is one of the greaiest games out, wh ich combines space 
style combat with the best Sow al titudc flight simulator ever, and 
having played it many times, I can honestly say dial I have 
enjoyed every game. 

Without having read the manual you can only marvel at the 
graphics, shoot everything in sight and hope you don't run out of 
energy before you've gained more points than last time. 

But once you have read the manual the game opens in from of 
you and you are able to incorporate much more skill in your 

The graphics belonging to this game arc incredible and come 
in two parts. The first, the view in the centre of the screen, is a line 
graphic display of your surroundings, in full colour. This display 
is not noticeably slowed by laser fire or large numbers of ships 
and the display flows well throughout the game. Willi a single 
press of a key you enable a well designed missile launch system 
which incorporates a "missile's eye view' with slight directional 
control and a not too generous time limit. 

The second part is the constant surrounding display of status 
and radar map. This is invaluable for slaying alive and keeping 
track of die refuelling and repair requirements. The surrounding 
border also contains the score, compass heading, map co-ordi- 
nates, scanner, altitude, speed and others facilities, all colour 
coded for easy status reference (all this is still legible in mono- 

An added bonus is the extremely good sound that is effec- 
tively combined with the graphics. 

As is usual, you only get two missiles and need three to de- 
stroy your game target. This of course means you need to dock 
with the annoying rotating silos that rotate just to make docking 
difficult and potentially deadly if you have low energy level, 
which is why you usually want to dock! 

Within the silo, apart from getting repaired, you can have 
great enjoyment by interrogating the computer and learning all 
you didn't want to know about the enemies power, most of which 
you probably guessed when you were undoubtedly attacked 
whilst docking. 

And lasiiy..ihe first thing to learn is that most things you 
encounter will try to kill you, and killing them will probably con- 
sume your limited supply of missiles or drain your laser energy 
banks to necessitate immediate docking to refuel! 




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April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

TimeOut series 

'Open-Apple & 
escape to TimeOut' 
says Peter Davis. 

Our second article on 
Beagle Bros' TimeOut 

□ Following Jon Gurr's offer in 
Apple 2000 magazine, MGA Mi- 
crosystems sent me some of 
Beagles' TimeOut series; SuperGraph, 
SuperFonts, SideSpreadand FileMas- 
ter. Some arc fine, and some really re- 
markable. There were problems with File- 
Master which vanished when MGA sent 
version V1.2 of TimeOut and version 
Vl.lof FileMaster. 

Overall these 'Pop Up' packages inte- 
grate nicely together, largely retaining the 
AppleWorks User Interface and give a 
glimpse of the possibility that we have not 
seen anything yet when it comes to what 
the Apple II can do. 


Each separate pack comes with 5.25" 
and 3.5" discs opera ling under ProDos 1.4, 
patched with 'Bird's Better Bye\ a fairly 
slim American Quarto 'designer' manual 
and die usual card recommending OPEN 
APPLE. Sadly absent arc the Victorian en- 
gravings, with Beagle Brothers brand of 
Monty Python humour. Must be serious 
commercial stuff this! 

You need an Apple He, lie, or GS and 
at lcasi 12SK memory, plus Applc- 


There have been a number of interrupt 
driven software enhancements for Apple- 
Works in the last few years. Some have 
been very useful. Personally I have used 
Pinpoint since 1985, and would be lost 
without a spelling checker, a communica- 
tions package, a note pad and a macro fa- 

So what's new about TIME OUT? On 
the whole the program has tried to keep the 
AppleWorks user interface in place, you 
are hardly aware that everything has 
stopped, and you arc no longer in Apple- 
Works. You can use the clipboard to con- 

vert spreadsheet data to data base and vice 
versa. It now gives AppleWorks graphing 
facilities comparable with Supercalc 3a or 
Lotus 123. Full high resolution Graphics 
text output to printers (with WYSIWYG 
review) that can combine a range of fonts 
and pictures and graphs, and the means of 
printing a sideways spreadsheet (the print 
quality is always stunning). TimeOut has 
one time instal lation and front end modifi- 
cation for printers, interfaces and RAM 
usage which work with ease and grace, 
and a fairly user friendly filer. 


APPLE II c with UNIDISC 3.5, Epson 
FX80 with serial to parallel interface. 

DISC 3.5, 1 niegPlusRAM.ImageWriicr 
I with SupcrScrial card. 

1 decided Lo do all the initial work on 
the Apple He on the basis that I should 
work with 'patchless' AppleWorks first 
and that this would show up any memory 
limitations. I used Proscl as the initial 
program selcctor,and just to make life a 
whole lot easier put everything on single 
3.5" UniDisk. It took me about 2 hours lo 
have the whole package up and running, 
and that is a tribute to TimeOut rather than 
to me. 

A few days later, after I decided that 
everything was 'Up and Running', and I 
patched another virgin version of Apple- 
Works with the PlusRAM "minimum 
patch', re- installed TimeOut , and I had a 
package that would work equally well on 
either machine. 

Finally I have a version of Apple- 
Works which can be copied to /RAM7 as 
a RAM image with Pinpoint and TimeOut 
Accessories both in place and working in 

(Please note well that there is no 
Pinpoint, compatibility when 
UltraMacros is added from 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

TimeOut. This was a rather late discovery 
for me, and does not negate the points I 
have made about the products tested here. 
Someone wishing to continue with Pinpo- 
int and contemplating the purchase Time- 
Out UltraMacros should bear this in 


If you look at the range of 'POP UP y 
accessories offered by Pinpoint and Time- 
Out, you cannot help noticing a certain 
resemblance, in fact you might think it a 
little bit 4 Me Too' with extras. Well the 
TimeOut accessories are more than just 
that, and 1 think it worth discussing some 
of die contrasting approaches used to 
achieve the same objective. 

Pinpoint was released late in 1985. As 
one of the first interrupt driven pieces of 
software for AppleWorks, it may have 
been pretty shaky at first, certainly not 
now and Pinpoint's comprehensive range 
of accessories are something I use all the 
time. Beagle Bros whose SupcrMac- 
roWorks is pretty good, have the advan- 
lageof doing something with the benefitof 
that experience, plus 80/80 hindsight 
which is good. The range of packages they 
now offer more than brackets anything 
Pinpoint can do in AppleWorks and just in 
case they rightly claim to have made 
TimeOut Pinpoint compatible. While in- 
stalling Pinpoint involves a number of 
steps and not a little planning, including 
thesclection of printers, TimeOut requires 
just one step to install, the same goes for 
adding applications. With TimeOut 
changing printers, configuring interfaces, 
locating fonts and loading to /Ram arc all 
handled from within AppleWorks with the 
aid of the UTILITIES accessory so that 
changes are so easy that Applcworks 
enhanced with TimeOut beomes aan eas- 
ily transportable package. For diese rea- 
sons alone TimeOut would be preferred by 
any first time user. 

I have tested TimeOut with Pinpoint 
and compatibility is perfect, even with 
Pinpoint Accessories that coexist with 
Applewoxks like the Spelling Checker. 
The problem is you have to ins tall Pinpoint 
lasL After that TimeOut cannot be re- 
installed, and you no longer have a trans- 
portable form of Appleworks. 

TimeOut is enabled with <Opcn 
Applc-Escape> to bring it up, and I do not 

doubt equally compatible with Au- 
toworks, SuperMacro Works which are 
enabled by <Open Apple-P>. 

Enabling Pinpoint causes Apple- 
Works 'to drop its drawers ' and save sub- 
stantial part of the program memory to be 
saved in form of a W.TEMP file to any 
available disk or RAM space. This lakes 
time but leaves 
the size of the Ap- 
pleWorks Desk- 
top unaffected. 
TimeOut takes up 
part of the Desk- 
top, you have 55K 
not 56K on an 
Apple 11C. Once 
you get to an ap- 
plication this 
swallows more 
Desktop. The 

Utility Options which enable you to load 
specific Applications to /RAM for faster 
operation on a 128K Apple lie can also cut 
your desktop to 12K. Similarly Uiere is a 
definite limit to the number of fonts that 
can be incorporated in one document. 
Since many people have extended mem- 
ory cards this may seem a small price to 

Pinpoint disables [OA-H], whereas 
TimeOut permits a screen dump under all 
just about all conditions and as far as 
possible retains the AppleWorks User 

Pinpoint can be installed on 
BASICSYSTEM, Applcwriter, RunRiin. 
Prosel, and a host of other programs. 
TimeOut is limited to AppleWorks. 


The manuals are adequate, each hav- 
ing as section devoted to installation, tuto- 
rial and reference, some have extensive 
appendices. To supplement this each in- 
stallation disk contains update informa- 
tion on an AWP file. (As a minor bonus 
there is a nice Binary file for printing A WP 
files to screen or printer wh ich responds to 
'Any key" at page breaks.) 

Installation is carried out using a 
Startup file from Basic.System. If you 
were installing for the first time or adding 
a new accessory on a 3.5" disc the proce- 
dure would be as follows:- 

Copy the Prodos from TimeOut to 
your application disc if you have not done 

so already, there are several Tile duplica- 
tions on each installation disk, so care- 
fully check that you use the most up to date 
files. This is most important if you want 
get the benefit of the latest upgrades. You 
also need to copy all your AppleWorks 
files to the disk for easy access. For my ap- 
plications the files I needed to have were:- 

I have chosen my example using ihe 
FileMaster installation disk , but it could be 
any other TimeOut installation disk. Bool 
the FileMaster disc, 
a You w ill then get the first screen V 1 .2 

: choose update Applcworks 
b Do you want TimeOut Applications 

sorted Y/N : does not matter 
C Do you need more than one applica- 
tions d isc Y/N : does not matter, unless 
you had to have Applications on 5 1 /4" 
d Select the location of TimeOut 
applications chose option 3. A Pro- 
DOS Directory*; [Return] ;Entcr \j 
prosel/limo]; [Return] 
e Select current APPLEWORKS 
STARTUP location application: I 
chose option 2 A ProDOS Directory*; 
(Return) ;Entcr f/prosel/apwl; [Re- 
turn] ; 
f Press any ; [Return] ;You should then 
see=> patching ALPWORKS System 
=> replacing TIME OUT 
g Press any key to start AppleWorks: 
and you are away. 

Beagle Bros have really worked on 
printer interfacing where ihe variety on 
options and interface combinations is 
more extensive than anything I have yet 
seen. Compared to the Imagewriter, I have 
always regarded my serial to parallel 
driven EpsonFX-80 as die "weak sister' 

when comes to graphics printing. This is 
no longer the case now with ^^ 

TimcOut's help. (•^ 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

TimeOut claims to patch AppleWorks 
so CONTROL-RESET jumps to main 
menu and not the monitor. This only 
works properly on an intermittent basis. 
You get back to AppleWorks main menu 
nearly every time but mostly files on the 
Appleworks Desktop are blank. An at- 
the monitor or worse. 

Each Accessory has to be separately 
configured through UTILITIES, (why not 
all?). Perhaps because there is significant 
inconsistency between the way UTILI- 
TIES is used re-configure printer and 
other features of each accessory. Unfortu- 
nately the location of TimeOut itself can- 
not be rc-spccificd in this way. There is 
also another rather strange feature, if you 
try to re-configure an application like 
SupcrGraph without a spreadsheet on the 
Desktop, you get a message telling you 
that you can't. 

Warning! ProDos 1.3 is bad, 1.4 is 
good. Probably 1.1.1 thru 1.2 are OK but 
not tested. Somehow during the early 
stages of testing I loaded Supcrfonts under 
ProDos 1 .3, and all of a sudden the pro- 
gram would not handle the 17k Super- 
Graph images anymore. The moral is use 
the ProDos you get I suppose. 

There is a certain amountof overlap on 
what you gel with each package. Some of 
these things come as a pleasant surprise, 
but they are not reflected in the advertising 
and m ight make you get something you do 
not want. As an example you might think 
that you only get the clipboard Data Con- 
verter with DeskTools. but it also appears 
in a number of Lite TimeOut packages 
including Sidespread and Supergraph. 

spreadsiieet data to data base and vice 
versa. It gave a certain amount of un-re- 
produciblc trouble with TimeOut version 
1.0. I have also heard that it has given 
trouble elsewhere, thus far I have not been 
able to make it go wrong with TimeOut 
version 1.2. (See SideSpread) 


Like the Prodigal son I have grown to 
cherish this part of the TimeOut package, 
because when it first arrived in its version was unsafe, hada battalion of 
bugs and strange idiosyncrasies. Now that 
Filemastcr version VI. 1 has come my 
way, I have to say it is functionally reliable 

and performs just about any task you 
would expect of a ProDOS filer program. 
It still retains an 'Un-AppleWorks-like 1 
user interface and does not quite behave 
like the rest of TimeOut. (An example of 
this is OPEN APPLE-Q lakes you to its 
own main menu then it makes you go 
through option 4 QUIT TO APPLE- 
WORKS, all the oihcr accessories do just 
what AppleWorks does.) You have the 
feeling that it was wri ttcn by someone who 
was a lilUe unfamiliar with AppleWorks 
and had not been exposed to the more 
beautiful aspects of SupcrMacroWorks. 
The difference between V1.0 and Vl.l 
was startling. The first version had seven 
major faults that no longer exist in the 
second version and at dial rale, by the lime 
you read mis many niggles you read here 
may no longer apply. 

Having invoked FileMaster with 
OPEN-APPLE ESCAPE you have a menu 

1 File Activities 

2 Disk Activities 

3 Version 

4 Quit to AppleWorks 

'I*hc Tile Activities' Menu has 9 op- 
tions all of which all but one work per- 
fectly. These options are:- 

1. List tiles 

2. Copy files 

3. Compare tiles 
A. Rename tiles 

5. Delete files 

6. Lock files 

7. Unlock files 

8. Change file type 

9. Clear Backup Bit 

I do not intend to cover each item in 
turn but lets take 'Option I. List tiles' to 
give a flavour of how things work; 

'List files ' lists all the files you have in 
your current Appleworks directory. To 
change the directory you press OPEN- 
APPLE-RETURN and immediately jump 
to a new Menu which displays alternative 
drives or directories and gives you ihe 
Option of changing by Slot and Drive 
Number or Prodos directory. Ii also gives 
you the chance lo 'lAddaSubdireciory* 
or '3.DropaSubdirectory*. These terms 
need explanation. 'Add* allows you to add 
an available directory to the current path. 
Existing directories are displayed and may 

be selected by highlighting the desired 
path. 'Drop' a subdirectory, backs up the 
directory one level. There are also some 
special commands OPEN-APPLE-V 
which allows you to 'View 1 all the files al 
once in die directory in compressed form, 
rather than be constrained by the usual Ap- 
pleWorks file window. Likewise you can 
Arrange files in the directory, use selec- 
tion Rules, Swap, Move and Insert files in 
new positions. 

There are a couple of other features of 
'File Activities' that need some comment. 

'Change file type* gives you the opiion 
to change a file's format, the principal 
object seems to be as an aid for communi- 
cations. There 1 5 obvious options and 255 
other Prodos Options covering BAS TXT 
PPF REL SYS. It all seems wonderful on 
the face of it, butpersonally I wasonly suc- 
cessful in 'Changing' the following:- 
AWP to FORMATTED TXT and again 
FORMATTED TXT back to AWP (all the 
initialisation shows). UNFORMATTED 
text to AWP does not work at all. Typical 
example could be DOCUMENT.LOG 
from Pinpoints Spelling Checker. To load 
that you need to go through Appleworks 
Word Processor and 'load text (ASCII) 
file', just as you always can with many 
oihcr file types. 

'Clear Backup Bit' shows + sign when 
a file has been hacked up by FileMaster. 
This is a neat idea. 

The 'Disk Activities' Menu only has 8 
options all of which work perfectly. These 
options are:- 

1 . List disks 

2. Copy disks 

3. Compare disks 

4. Rename directory 

5. Erase a disk 

6. Format a disk 

7. Create subdirectory 

8. Copy a subdirectory 

Most of the items in this menu arc self 
evident, some items need a little comment. 
'Copy a disk' has one of the nicer features, 
letting you copy smaller volume to larger 
volume. 'Erase a disk' is extremely fast. 
'Format a disk'is good because you don't 
gel ihe DATA DISK flag that you get with 
the AppleWorks internal Formatter. 
'Rename a directory* means, ^^ 
Rename a 'Volume 1 if you are (^m 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

in the root directory. 'Copy a subdirec- 
tory 1 means create a subdirectory and 
copy all the files inside, you can use arrow 
keys to tick more lhan one subdirectory, 
but sadly only one will be handled at a 
time. You have to start again to do the rest. 
When you're copying or comparing disks 
or files, confirmatory screen appears 
('No' 'Yes') to let you verify that the 
source and destination are correct. With 
•No* highlighted, press OPEN-APPLE- 
RETURN to swap the source and destina- 

Let mcjust mention a few things which 
make this accessory less than perfect. To 
copy files from a directory to another di- 
rectory, you have to identify the disk 
drives first. Only then can you start enter- 
ing full directory names. You can toggle 
set whole set of subd irectorics for copying 
directory and contents, but you can only 
do one at a time. 

My conclusion about the FileMaster 
pan of TimeOut is that it is too invaluable 
not to have, but it could have been done a 
iitile better. It contains aspects which are 
slow, complicated and fussy. It still does 
not stand up well compared with the best 
and most elegant TimeOut accessories 
which really give AppIeWorksa new lease 
of life. 


This application provides the means of 
converting AppleWorks word processor 
text on die desktop to a double high reso- 
lution image which can combine Pictures. 
Graphs with over 47 fonts as one docu- 
ment. Documents can quickly be reviewed 
by printing to the screen, so that ultimately 
you have a WYSIWYG facility, prior to 
printing on a dot matrix printer. 

Printing out is direct from Apple- 
Works and the quality both on an 
Imagewriter I & Epson FX80 are both re- 
markable. (Until now I have never man- 
aged to get consistent easy results with die 
Epson FX-80 and Orange serial to parallel 
interface. I hardly had to think with this 

To print a document you indicate 
which fonts or images are required at the 
beginning of the document so that a docu- 
ment might start like this:- 




Angled braces <2> indicate com- 
mands which are ignored by the printed 
text, thus the First commands at the head of 
this document indicate dial fonts 1 thru 5 
should be loaded to memory followed by 
<pl> which in this case is a graph image. 
Individual fonts are then specified by 
number <4> at an appropriate point in the 
text You can mix the order and even 
change font in the middle of a line. The 
PIC must stand clear on its own, thus:- 

Most of the normal AppleWorks [OA- 
O] print options are available. The most 
notable lacks are [PHJ Pause Here and 
[EK] Enter Keyboard, but you can change 
page width and length, set margins, center, 
add headers and footers, indent, skip lines, 
number pages, do mail merge and more. 
Just beware a little because not all the 
AppleWorks conventions are stricdy fol- 
lowed. If you leave out the 'Underline 
End' carat * A * at the end of a paragraph, the 
rest of the page has everything underlined. 

SuperFonts also offers other new com- 
mands (eg <ib> ■ italic begin). You can 
'tab' to absolute locations from the mar- 
gins (eg <t2> = column 2). This makes it 
possible to line up columns even when 
you're using proporuonally-spaccd char- 

You can mix fonts with high resolution 
images and with Dazzle Draw type double 
high resolution images. The position is 
defined with screen grid references. This 
is not as easy as PP.GraphMcrgc Cut and 
Paste, but of course theprint quality makes 
up for all that. The results of combining 
graphics and text can be quite stunning, 
die fact that you can use Superfonts to 
combine the I7kSuperGraph images with 
text is one of the most powerful features of 
die package. 

Again the process of printing to screen 
orprintcris so similar to AppleWorks as to 
be very easy to learn. [Print from? Begin- 
ning Page Curser] is just like it says with 
additional feature that you can print from 
pagenumbcrtopagenumbcr. Youarealso 
given an exua menu enabling printout to 
be Tall, Reduced by 50% in print quality 
High Standard or Draft. Everything else 
works just like Appleworks. 

The manual claims that fonts arc 

Macintosh fonts and similar to those used 
by the GS . 1 have been able to try on or t wo 
GS fonts and they work. SuperFonts sup- 
ports fonts up to 127 points size. I have not 
discovered a font editor mat works on the 
He, though Beagle say they have a univer- 
sal font editor in the pipeline. It is perhaps 
worth mentioning that most fonts include 
a wide variety of special or foreign charac- 
ters which are brought up by level com- 

AppleWorks enhancement 
Processor files in any com 

leauing flppielUorks! 

That means you con print 
uoriety of sizes (6 to 127 

Chicago - The quick brown 

Geneva - The quick brown ft 
Los /fngeles - The quick brc 

Courier .9- W« quick browi for ju»| 

rionaco - The quick brown 

Now York - The quick brow 

Vvnicv.2B - 

A selection of font samples 

mands <x2> or <x3>. It is a shortcoming 
of the manual that there is no systematic 
reference section describing the fonts in 
detail and the only way to discover what 
you have is to explore. 

UTILITIES allows you to very easily 
define the ProDOS locations of fonts and 
pictures. It must said that you have to be 
really careful about how you do this. Ap- 
pleworks forgives almost any ProDOS in- 
discretion. TimeOut looks so much like 
AppleWorks, that it comes that much 
harder when lets you do it wrong and fi nd 
out ihe hard way. An example of Super- 

Fonts'Non Forgiveness Msinthe'Utilitics 
: Configure : LocationoffontV option. Just 
try (a) PROSF.L/FNT or (b) /PROSEL/ 
FNT/. SuperFonts needs it to be / 
PRGSEL/FNT. You cannot 
argue with this because Pro- f^w 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

DOS says il ouglu to be done like thai but 
Pinpoint calls for (a) and argues if you try 
anything else. ProscI also likes (a). There 
is wisdom in the cry for standards. 

Conclusion, absolutely recom- 
mended. An easily accessible professional 
and comprehensive addition 10 Apple- 
Works that really works with exceptional 


This is a really powerful facility for the 
those mathematically or financially in- 
clined. Il now gives AppleWorks graphing 
Lotus 123 while retaining the Apple- 
Works user interface in an easy and con- 
sistent way. Data to be graphed has only to 
be highlighted from within the spread- 
sheet itself. A preview on screen (View 
Option) is there to provide a means of 
checking out your settings, scaling fac- 
tors, headings and legends. 

Although this TimcOut program best 
maintains the AppleWorks feel in its mode 
of operation, this is very much a program 
in its own right, and takes some getting 
used to. Working with a Spreadsheet on 
the desktop, there are 7 graph forms to 

TlaaOuI GflflPH UI.O 
Graph? Tud« Oflto 


choose from, 6 sets of data to plot, 36 
legends to identify data. You have control 
over scaling factors, formats which corre- 
spond to AppleWorks conventions (ie 
Dollars, Percentages). There is no colour 
but the range of backgrounds, grids and fill 
patterns is extensive. Two additional con- 
figuration options allow you to choose 
separate Label and Title fonts. The Label 
font is used for the axes labels, sub-title, x- 
axis/y-axis titles, and Legends. The Title 
font is used for the Main graph title. There 
is a 'View' facility to see the graph on 
screen before printing in one of $ sizes. 
You can just save and recall the graph 
settings which correspond to a specific 
spreadsheet or you can save an entire 
graph as double high resolution 
PlC.which can be reloaded or incorpo- 
rated in a SuperFonts document. 

The manual is the longest and most 
comprehensive of the TimeOui range that 
1 have looked at, and it needs to be. 

The Options offered on invoking Su- 
perGraph appear at the bottom of the 
screen which in most respects retains the 
normal spreadsheet look. 

Type can be Bar, Line, X-Y, Pie, 
Stacked Bar (with exploded option), Area, 
and Hi-Lo 

Data offers X A B C D E F 

(Note X specifics the label that appears 
along the X axis at intervals which can be 
adjusted to avoid overcrowding, ie if an 
event occured every day of the year you 
could choose io mark a day at 30 day 

View lets you quickly screen the graph 
in a high resolution graphics formal. 

Options provides means of entering 
the legend i.e. the symbols which repre- 
sent data points. These options indicate the 
symbols that arc used in Line, X-Y and Hi- 
Lo graphs. Symbols 1 through 6 corre- 
spond to data ranges A through F. 

Titles enables the graph to be titled and 

Format allows the user to select a 

shading pattern or otherwise correspond- 
ing to each vari- 
able ABCDEF or 
the background of 
the graph itself. 
Graph format also 
enables a back- 
ground or sym- 
bols or both to be 
selected as ordinatcs of a graph. Grid can 
be horizontal vertical both or clear. Scale 
enables X or Y axes to be specifically 
scaled, there is also a self scaling function 
which allows the program to pick the start 
and finish points of x or y ordinates auto- 

File enables one to record the graph 
sellings and ihen under a default name 
REGRESSIONS (IK) or to record the 
17K pic of the graph itself. This latter can 
be combined wilh super fonts 

Reset enables one to reset all the op- 
tions scales data and types back to square 
one selectively xabcdcf graph. 

Print pulls up the normal Apple works 
printou l menu but also provides the option 
to produce graphs in si/.es scaled 1 2 or 3. 
The number of copies then required can 
then be specified in the normal way. 

Cooungiu 1907. fiob flenstroi 
Ooilons Fll« Raoet Print 

It is also possible to reload a graph in 
picture or by using the settings. 

If you exit Graph while the same 
spreadsheet is up, all your settings are re- 
membered which is useful. There are two 
caveats to bear in mind from this benefit. 
You must select the 'View' option to dis- 
play the graph on the screen before print- 
ing die graph again or it will not print 
corrccdy. You have to use the * Reset 
Option* if you want to print a different 
graph fo rm or cancc 1 the previous settings. 

Contains DATA CONVERTER, (sec 


This accessory works deceptively 
well, is easy to operate and consistent with 
AppleWorks. The UTILITIES option 
gives you 8 Monaco fonts (6 - 24) and 8 
Courier fonts (9 - 28) to choose from. 

There is no Prcv icw , but yon can select 
rows column block just like AppleWorks. 
In fact once you ore in SideSpread it is 
difficult to tell you are not still in Apple- 
Works. When you print out you have the 
option of going tall or half size, and a final 
screen that tells you how many lines you 
have identified and how many lines you 
can get in a page. If it docs not fit you can 
always change the font size to compen- 
sate. The print quality looks good and 
surprisingly fast for graphics printing. 

SideSpread contains DATA CON- 
VERTER which will transmit Spread- 
sheet information onto Data Base or the 
other way round. The data selected must 
be in die clipboard. There is a benefit if you 
have the Applied Engineering desktop 
expander which considerably increases 
the amount of data handled. I have tried the 
facility on a He fitted with Z-RAM Ultra 
and enabled (he full potential of Expanded 
Desktop with the UTILITIES option 
4 Using the Applied Engineering expanded 
clipboard [Yes)\ This is a very nice fea- 
ture I have long wanted. (In the past, I have 
been able to do this using a complicated 
Macro to go to text files and back). 

To illustrate that system works I have 
prepared 2 trivial examples (sec over). 

The reader will have to accept that all 
details of the data base have indeed been 
transferred to the spread sheet, and that 
this can only really be demontrated in a 
Sidesprcad document. In other words the 
DATA CON VERTER allows you to print 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

Fl |f] Soread 


Pago 1 












Sof«ly GiOr 










Bore lays Bank 











Barclay* Bonk 











Barclay* Bonk 




Cnafton Rd 




BMM 0689/5763: 

F I to; Data.Sorood 
Report \ Outu. Spread 

Coepany Address 




Page 1 

Blkos 42 

flceoooorlos 29 

Safely Gear I 2 

Clothing 21 

Barclay* Ban Prise fl/C Office 

Barclay* Ban Prlot fl/C Office 

Barclay* Ban Fornborough 




PO 125 
PO 125 

368 Croft on Rd 






Kent BR6 




Illustration of the transfer of data from Spreadsheet to Data Base 

a data base sideways by first convening it 
lo spreadsheet, making this part of the 
package a very handy tool. 

On the face of it SideSpread is a simple 
utility which is available in a number of 
stand alone programs, but it is part of Ap- 
pleWorks and has an case of operation and 
speed of printout which I have not seen 
bettered. I recommend it highly. 

All considered all 4 TimcOul accesso- 
ries tested performed reliably and well. 
There are a few areas of inconsistency, no 
doubt these will lessen as upgrades appear. 
Print speed and quality are well ahead of 
anything I have handled so far. Each prod- 
uct tested is worth having. There are areas 
where die stated capabilities of TimeOut 
fall short of what is actually available and 
I believe in is should be clarified both in the 
text of the advertising and the text of the 
manuals as well as the notes on disk. 

(STOP PRESS. There is now new 
version of FileMaster (V1.2) which 
amongst other things uses the IOPEN- 
APPLE Ql in the conventional Apple- 
Works user interface.) M 

MacCadd - 

The Intelligent Software Diagram Editor 



MacCadd Uersion 4 is a powerful tool on the Apple Macintosh 
for the production of software design diagrams. 

* Quick and easy to use 

* Output suitable for reports and presentations 

* Supports many of the current design methods such as Vourdon and SSflDM 

* Supports any user defined diagram type 

* Can be customised for the users ou/n requirements 

For more information contact: MacCadd Marketing 

Logica UK Ltd 
64 Newman Street 
London W1 A 4SE 

Tel +44 1 637 911 1 

April 1988 

Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

Apprentice C 

for Apple// DOS 

Apprentice C is a 
beginners introduction 
toC programming - 
Mike Tickle finds it 
excellent value. 

Apprentice C is available 
from MGA Microsystems, 
Pear Tree, Appledore, Kent 
TN26 2AR. The price is 
£19.00 inclusive of VAT. 

□ Apprcniice *C (App.C) ver 1.06 
was kindly supplied for review by 
MGA and consists of an unpro- 
tected D/S 5 1/4" disc and a loose leaf 
manual in a neat clip binder. MGA cur- 
rently charge only £19.00 including VAT 
& delivery! 

App.C is written by Manx Software 
Systems of New Jersey, U.S.A. who also 
supply the Aztec 'C implementations. 
App.C is designed for learning, develop- 
ing and testing C programs. There is no 
Dos on the master disc. First boot a Dos 
3.3 master, copy the disc, then Brun 
SHELL. You arc now in an environment 
called the SHELL which looks like 
UNIX. Being used to Dos 3.3 and Prodos, 
the SHELL is a marvellous change. Re- 
moving, copying and printing files, is a 
doddle. Listing to the screen, another file 
or a printer is easy, as follows:- 
'cat mylist' 

'cat mylist > my2ndlist' 
'cat mylist > pr:' 
There are 16 disc operating commands 
built into the SHELL. Text files contain- 
ing SHELL commands execute the com- 
mands sequentially. So lypc a name in, the 
SHELL checks to see if it is a built in 
command, if not. it looks for a disc file of 
that name, if an exec file then executes the 
commands, if aprogram then run it, if none 
of those things then an error message of 
some sort. 

One thing any aspiring 'C program- 
mer will need regardless of which imple- 
mentation being used is The White Book 
or to give it the correct name, die C pro- 
gramming language by Brian Ker- 
nighan and Dennis Ritchie. You must 
have it It contains the definitive descrip- 
tion of 'C*. 

Having got the SHELL up and run- 
ning, you may configure your working 
disc using CONFIG. This is simple ques- 
tion and answer session and takes a minute 
or two at the most. I configured my copy to 

run on a 64 K. 1'IT 2020 with Applesoft 
Rorns (anyone remember?) 40 co!. screen, 
no lower case or single wire shi ftkey mod. 
quite happily. Then to run on an uncn- 
hanced //e 80 col card also with no prob- 
lems. CONFIG also knows about the 
Vidcx Videotcrm and the Smartcrm. as 
well as the //e 80 col. card and die default 
Apple screen. "For other screens you must 
explicitly define the control sequences for 
Operations that it supports" to quote the 
manual. CONFIG is used to set the 
SHELL to use your printer as well. You 
can play games with line feeds after re- 
turns or not. High bits on or off as you will, 
even 'or' in a hex 80 with each char if such 
an obscure need arises. 

VED (Visual Editor) comes next. A 
text file cditorsuited to formatingC source 
files. The only facility I miss is automatic 
search and replace. Onecan search but you 
have to type in to edit. Moving text is OK. 
The contents of the 1000 character yank 
buffer is retained across files as well as 
within files/To exit VED cither write the 
file to disc and quit, which takes you to die 
compilor or explicitly quit to the SHELL 
without running the compilor, or explic- 
itly clear buffer and prepare for the next 
named file. 

Assuming you have just quit, the de- 
fault App.Ccompilor called ACautomati- 
cally compiles the file last written to the 
disc with its name in the VED buffer. Any 
mistakes in your source and the compilor 
aborts, calls VED and leaves the cursor as 
close to the error as possible, leaving an 
error message on the status line.Thcre arc 
125 possible errors and 9 fatal errors de- 
scribed in the manual. The compilor is 
very quick, the library is in memory, there 
is no linking and assembling to do. The 
compilor does it all in one pass. 

There are two compilors and two 
matching run time systems called AC, 
AC.RTS and ACGR, ACGR.RTS respec- 
tively. Both use standard I/O and Utility 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

QicCmutfiin's ZL-Z of V/GS solutions. 

A complete GS accounts system, seam- 
lessly integrating sales, purchase and 
general ledgers with invoicing from 
stock, stock control & management 
reports. Brilliantly easy to use and 
fast. Designed for the non accountant. 
i i [Opt ions Include RAMcachelng & 

" macros. 



Based on AppleWorks expanded and en- 
hanced with as many options and utili- 
ties as you need: Spelling Checker, 
Macros, Comms, Graphs etc. etc. All 
fully Installed with mousedesk & selec- 
tor to give a price /productivity 

performance few other systems 
can hope to match. 

An answer to the 'Joys' of trying to 
communicate with the outside world* 
OatallnK, an Internal, 1200/1200 baud 
Hayes compatible AA / AD modem com- 
plete with software; Also external mo 
(fems and a variety of Software. 


o^:': :-:■:■.:■ ■ 

TopDraw 3s a magnificent drawing pro- 
gram for the v/GS only. It is object 
orientated, with masses of features. 
Like a colour version of MacDraw. Inte 
grates with Multiscrlbe for desktop 




Yes, once 
you've drawn 
a few boxes 
you run out of 
great ideas. 
! , Or do 




Hard Disks 



Hard disks 

Kpnsuitancy (we may 

be good technically, 

but lousy at spelling) 


Music & Multitasking 

Number crunching & 




Quality support 



Train Ing 


VIP Professional 

Word Processing 

Xtra memory 

Zork Trilogy - after 

that lot everyone 

needs a break ! 

These are just some of the systems we can offer. If you have a problem, why 
not let us recommend an answer. We guarantee it will meet your requirements 

Bidrtiuthirt Technologies Ltd 
Brent House 
214 Kenton Road 
Middlesex HA3 8BT 

Telephone 01 -907 851 6 

Apple Authorised Resellers 

Level 1 Service Centre 

Apple //series &Wlac 

Routines as described in The While Book, 
plus System I/O. AC can also use the 
floating point math functions but not the 
graphic functions and ACGR uses the 
graphic functions and not all the maths 
functions. This is because of memory con- 
straints. The scanf. sprintf and sscanf 
functions are not used by ACGR either. 
The User executable code called pseudo 
code can be up to the limits of 3 sizes. The 
RTS for Graphics interprets code of a 
fixed size, this is the smallest at 5600 byts. 
Use the graphics compiler without graph- 
ics (compiled with -N option) the size is 
increased to 14000 bytes. Using the de- 
fault compiior the size is 8K long. This 
code is interpreted code not native 6502 
code. The program generated by App.c is 
a single contiguous block of memory from 
Hex800 to the base of the I/O buffers just 
below HexCOOO. 

The manual is much improved from 
the original Dos 3.3 Aztec manual being 
physically smaller, clearer and has an 
index. There is a very helpful section on 
writing programs in C, with examples of 
commom problem areas. My brief de- 

Apple // 

scription by no means covers the wide 
scope of this package. It is a substantial 

I already use Prodos and Dos 3.3 Aztec 
systems, and the compile assemble link 
time cycle can be a drag if the program 
proves difficult to write. Using App.c 
would speed up development time. The 
listing attached to this review was devel- 
oped on App.C and took 1 minute 28 
seconds to compile, including loading the 
compiior, source and writing output to 
disc. I am by no means certain my program 
docs what is intended yet but mat as my 
fault not App.C. It is a tool based on an idea 
in a book by Robert Ward called Debug- 
ging C published by Que. The tool points 
to die Hex address of the active function, 
its secondary return address and the call- 
ing functions secondary return address on 
the pseudo stack. The dumpst function is 
totally different from Robert Wards in that 
it is Aztec specific and uses the informa- 
tion provided by Manx on zero page us- 
age. The idea being that if your program 
inexplicably crashes then recompile with 
the appropriate debugging functions and 

definitions included with calls inserted 
where suspicion suggests. Then recompile 
again and run. The results should be illu- 
minating not confusing! After using 
App.C, I gladly confess I am delighted by 
its speed, it will make it easier to use big 
brothers Prodos + Dos 3.3. Aztec C. Be- 
ginners to *C or users who do not require 
floatingpoint math & graphics in the same 
program and/or do not want to overlay 
modules will find App.C a very useful low 
cost system. 

The only warning I would give is to GS 
owners, see it working using the printf 
math function on a GS before you buy (it 
should run in die Apple Jl mode). I have 
heard rumours of difficulties with using 
Dos 3.3 Aztec on the GS and T have had 
difficulty with ProdosC on an unenhanccd 
lie though I think they arc nearly solved. 
Manx do not have unenhanccd Apples. 
Prodos and Aztec C on an enhanced Apple 
uses the zero page differently to unen- 
hanccd Apples, this gives no problems till 
the math printf function is used. The re- 
verse of mat problem may be Dos 3.3 
Apprentice/Aztec C on a GS. 

Debug listing 

#include "stdio.h" 

void dumpst(id) 

void Ievel2(de>pth.pnt) 

char 'id, 

int depth; 

/* stack pointers 7 


char "pnt; 

/' frame pointers V 

unsigned long var,var2; 

#define sp1 <'(char •) 0x02) 

long address^); 


ffdefine 6p2 ("(char ") 0x03) 

void dumpstQ; 

Brtefine fr1 ("(char *) 0x04) 

printfC %s\n",id)i 

void Ievel3(). 

#defir>e fr2 ('(char *) 0x05) 

var = addrese(sp1,sp2); 


unsigned char *add. *sp, 

sp =(*(unsigr»ed char ')&var); 

dumpst('level2 entry"), 

printf ("Psuedo stk %x ",sp); 

if (depth > 1) 




var2 = address(fr1.fr2); 

for(i = 0;i< 15; i++) 

void Ievel1(); 

add =("(unsignod char ")8.var2); 


r test function 7 

printf (' frame — >%x ",add); 

•pnt++ = *\0'; 

printf("\napproaching first callVT); 




Ievel3( depth - 1); 

printffViapproaching second callVT). 



level! (6); 

dumpst("level2 exit"); 

printffViapproaching third call\n"); 

f* test function V 


level 1(2); 


void level 1 (depth) 

r recursive test call "/ 


int depth; 


void Ievel3(depth) 

/' build address '/ 

void dumpstC); 

mt depth; 

void level2(); 


long address(l, h) 


void dumpstQ. 

unsigned int 1; 

unsigned long h; 

dumpst(1evel1 entry"); 

dumpst(level3 entry"); 


if (depth > 1) Ievel2( depth - 1. &buff); 

if (depth > 1) 

return((h « 8) + 1); 

dumpst('levell exit"); 

Iovol3( dopth - 1); 



dumpstfleve!3 exit"); 


f print stack & frame pntrs 7 

r creat an err with loop > 1 5 */ 




Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 


Dr. Peter Stark looks 
at a new desktop 
publishing program 
for the Apple // range. 

Publish-lt! is available from 
MGA Microsystems, Pear 
Tree, Appledore, Kent 
TN26 2AR- The price is 
£99.95 inclusive of VAT. 

□ Publish-lt! , a desktop publishing 
program from Timeworks, is a 
splendid addition to the wide 
range of software for the Apple II series. It 
is versatile, powerful, enjoyable, and rea- 
sonably easy to learn to use. Its printed 
results can be really pleasing. The pro- 
gram is essentially 'WYSIWYG', but 
with some minor exceptions. (For in- 
stance, with some type fonts the text 
printed outon paper is more attractive than 
the screen display suggests). 

What is supplied, and what is needed 

Publish-lt! was supplied to me as four 
5.25" disks (ProDOS, unprotected), to- 
gether with a User's Manual (sec below). 
A set of (two) 3.5" disks is also available, 
at a small extra cost. 

To use Publish-lt!. you need an Apple 
IIGS, a lie, or an enhanced lie (at least 1 28 
K). A mouse is virtually essential. You 
can use a joystick instead - but I found this 
less easy to control sufficiently. With the 
5.25" version, I strongly advise using two 
disk drives. A wide range of dot matrix 
printers can be used with Publish-Il! 

General description 

Documents created with the aid of 
Publish-lt! can contain six types of 'ob- 
ject* (text columns; graphics frames; 
horizontal or vertical lines; rectangles; 
round-cornered rectangles; and circles). 
By using the mouse, individual objects can 
be selected, changed in size, and moved as 
desired, and can be placed on top of others 
if required. 

The order of stacking of such objects 
can be changed if you wish. Objects can be 
copied, cut, pasted, or deleted quite sim- 
ply. On-screen rulers are available. You 
arc not limited to one-page documents; 
several pages can be produced in one 

The normal screen display of Publish- 

lt! shows a series of * tools' along its left 
hand side, nine pull-down menus (includ- 
ing 'Help') along die top edge, and scroll 
bars and boxes along the other two sides. 

When certain menu options arc se- 
lected, 'dialog boxes' appear on ihe 
screen, inviting the user to enter informa- 
tion or make further choices. There are 
four size options for the screen display. 
With the 'Show full size' view option, the 
text and graphics appear on the screen in 
the same size as they will be printed on 
paper. Besides this, and the 'Show double 
size' and 'Show half size' choices, there is 
also a useful 'Size to fit' option which 
allows the user to see a representation of 
the whole page on the screen (although in 
this case die text is no longer legible, and 
the graphics are merely shown as grey 

Most of the tools and menu options are 
selected by using the mouse. However, 
there arc quite a number of 'Open Apple' 
commands ('Quick Keys') which allow 
you to make choices via the keyboard, if 
you prefer. Incidentally, I found thai use of 
the Open Apple key plus the various arrow 
keys was a convenient way of moving the 
cursor to highlight chosen portions of text 
(e.g. in order to change the type style or 
size). This particular point did not seem to 
be mentioned in the User's Manual. 
Menus, and items within them, are high- 
lighted or dimmed, depending upon 
whether tliey are active and available at 
any given ume. 


Text can easily be put into text col- 
umns (produced as objects) by typing in 
from the keyboard. Also, word processor 
files created by AppleWorks (or by Bank 
Street Writer) can be 'imported' direcdy, 
as can ASCII text files from other sources. 
It is very easy to arrange text in two or 
more columns. If you wish, you can ar- 

Aprll 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


range for text to flow automatically from 
one text column to another. An important 
feature is that if you place another object 
(such as a graphic) on a column of tex t, the 
text will flow round it. If you change the 
positions of the graphics, the text readjusts 

As with other good word processors, it 
is easy to edit and format the text to suit 
your wishes. Six fonts arc supplied with 
Publish-Il!, and each of these can be pro- 
duced in different sizes and styles (Italic, 
Underline, OuUine. Super- and Subscript, 
and so on). For any given font, you can 
cycle through its available sizes and type 
styles so as to see on screen what the 
effects of the various alternatives are. 

Different fonts, type sizes, and type 
styles can all be used within any column or 
page. There are various Find and Replace 
possibilities, and also 'Sticky Space' and 
'Soft Hyphen' options. (The 'Sticky 
Space' facility is useful if you want to 
make sure that a particular set of words 
will be treated as an indivisible group, and 
will not be split between two lines. 'Soft 
Hyphens* are useful should you wish to 
ensure that if a given word needs to be split 
at the end of a line, a hyphen will be 
inserted at the point which you prefer. If 
the text layout is then changed so thai the 
word no longer needs to be broken, the 
h yphen will disappear). Margins, justifi- 

cations, and spacings (between words, let- 
ters, lines, and paragraphs) can be altered 
as you wish. 

Graphics and graphic objects 

It is also easy to import HiRes or 

Apple // 

Double HiRes graphics into Publish-lt! 
from other sources. In addition, a fair 
number of graphics are included with 
Publish-lt! as artwork. The actual pictures 
only appear on the screen when the 'show 
full size* option has been chosen. With the 
other size options, die graphics just appear 
as shaded boxes. 

Further attractive effects can be pro- 
duced by using the various graphic object 
tools (horizontal or vertical lines; rec- 
tangles; or circles). You can choose from 
various pen widths, pen patterns, and fill 
patterns, and you can even design new 
patterns if you wish. 

The User's Manual 

The manual is about 160 pages long, 
supplied in a ring binder. This is not my 
favourite form of binding, but neverthe- 
less the manual does seem hard wearing 
and acceptably attractive. I found the 
manual quite easy to read and understand. 
Its style is relaxed and friendly, bul also 
clear and informative. In addition to the 
instructions for use of Publish-lt!, a glos- 
sary and a lot of helpful definitions arc 
provided, as is a 'Quick-Start Mini-Man- 
ual'. The package also includes some 
down-to-earth advice on graphic design, 
as well as several sample documents. 

Printing, and the printed results 

The speed of the printing operation 
depends upon Ihe amount and complexity 
of the material being printed. Simple let- 
ters, for example, are printed out quite 
rapidly, but a page containing several dif- 
ferent type fonts etc. may take several 
minutes. With the 5.25" version of Pub- 
lish-U!, the two disk drives have to work 
hard, as there is frequent disk accessing of 
both. If your Apple has sufficient mem- 
ory, it is worthwhile first to load all the 
Publish- It! fonts into RAM. 

Overall, I have been very pleased so far 
with ihe quality and appearance of docu- 
ments produced with Publish-lt!, using 
dot matrix printers. Both text and graph- 
ics have usuall y come out very well. All of 
the text fonts that were supplied look 
pleasing, and 1 fell that some of them (e.g. 
*Ravinia') are particularly attractive. In 
the PRINT Dialog box, 'Double Strike' 
can be chosen , if one wants extra contrast. 

The User's Manual men tions that a pack is 
available which would enable the use of a 
laser printer. 

Overall comments 

I liked Publish-lt! very much. As a 
desktop publishing tool, it proved to be 
powerful and versatile. There are many 
built-in facilities, and I have not tried to 
mention all of them in this review. 

In view of the numerous options which 

it offers, it is not surprising that learning to 
use Publish-lt! takes a little time and per- 
severance, but not to an excessive extent. 
After a reasonably short while, in fact, I 
found it hardly necessary to look at the 

manual any more . My only (small) quibbl c 
is that if you type fast, the screen display is 
unlikely to be able to keep up with you, and 
some letters may be left out as a result (I 
have had similar problems with Multis- 
et! be, another very good word processor). 
Also, do take care not to be trigger-happy 
with the delete key, otherwise you may 
well see too much of your typed-in text 
disappear inexorably as you watch - an 
upsetting experience. 

These are only minor aspccis,andl can 

certainly recommend Publish-lt! as an 
excellent piece of software which gives 
good results and is fun to experiment with 
and to use. 

With this product, you don't need to be 
an expert on computers or on graphic 
design in order to turn out documents 
(letters, reports, newsletters, etc.) that will 
be found attractive and impressive. 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

'Open-Apple' a winner. 

London Nl 9 
Dear Jim. 

I am a current member of the group and had a 
couple of points For you. I wonder if 1 may have 
on advert in the members small ads? ... 
....I also enclose acopy of thenewsletter Open- 
Apple because there is a first class article on the 
GS that is quite unique in it's clarity, style and 
information. It's headed 'IIGS System Disk 3.1 
available* and in fact deals with much more. 
There's nothing that I have seen in the Apple II 
press that deals with this matter or much else 

for that mattcrt so well 

if I may be so bold it would be a fitting 

swectner for permission if you as editor could 
offer a small advert for the newsletter for a 
couple of issues, since the ads that I have seen 
in the U.S . press are small, illustrated and witty. 
.... ihcrcs nothing like the Open Apple, it keeps 
our older and younger machines in the game, 
has lots on AppleWorks, its writen well, its sent 
o overseas subscribers at no extra cost, pay- 
ment can be by credit card from here and on and 

It seems too that those of us still with the II 
scries arcshy in writing well forthc journal, mc 

Best wishes. 
Huw Price 

RepIy:Thanks for the letter Huw, small advert 
is entered as requested. 

It's obvious that great minds think alike be- 
cause we have just concluded a deal which will 
enable us to put your suggestion into practice. 
Tom Weishaar could not have a better recom- 
mendation than that you have given and as an 
old Apple II user 1 editor I wish I could do as 

well. Seriously thoughTom does a fantastic job 
and J endorse everything you have said. Hope 
fully other members wilt do as you have and 
subscribe toOpen-Apple NOW. Cost is just $24 
per year AirM nil and it heals Apple User hands 


Write to us - its easy 

Members are invited to send 
letters, tips or article on any 
Apple or mac related sub- 

The magazine is your 
mouthpiece as well as a 
place to get information. 
Just send your letters, tips 
or articles to 

^ The Editor. 

• Apple2000, P.O.Box 3, Liverpool L21 8PY 

Ml users write' - 1 

|[.mmI|..i I., | 

irr.-u»mi q|fiHI#trit&t; 

; WttWft 

Dear Jim, 

At long last you say! Yet another Apple //e 
Member User is finally responding! 
Having read the letters contained in the Febru- 
ary. "88 issue of "Applc2000" I felt that al- 
though time wiih other conflicting priorities 
generally prevents me from actively participat- 
ing in the a ffairs of the Group 1 should ai 1 east 
now communicate. 

I share the views of most of the members who 
wrote about the wish for Apple II users to be 


In the first instance I would be only too pleased 
to offer my services to members who are expc 
riencing problems with their Apple //c and/or 
software. I have been using an Apple for a few 
years now and can assure members that I have 
experienced considerable difficulties in trying 

to accomplish many of the things I wanted to 

do, owing to the limitations of hardware cards 

and software. Over this jieriod I have concen- 
trated in various ways in which to over-come 
the problems with some reasonable success. 
Some of this has been attributed to die help, 
support and services of Applc2000 (BASUG) 
members including Officers o f the Commi ttcc 
to whom I have been most grateful. Doubtless, 
therefore, it would be perhaps helpful to share 
the issues wiih other Apple II members, so that 
ihey can gain ihe benefit of several years of 

By way of a small example, the letter from the 
member who is experiencing problems with 

Format-80. If he would like lo contact mc I 
would be pleased to help whether it be in DOS 

I have enclosed some examples of work com 
pleted on an Apple II on the Prestel Service. I 
am sorry for the poor quality but this is not a 
failing nflhe lie hul had quality nn the phoi-stat 

I am looking for help with digilisingyscanning 
pictures and artwork for use on the Apple //e - 
anyone able to help. A reward is offered. 

Gordon P. Owen 

Reply: Thanks for the letter and the support on 
the Apple II side, f hope that you will get a reply 
to your question. Dave Ward I am sure will 
gladly place you on his EXPERTS list. 

'AppleWorks problem' 

London N 19 
Dear Apple2000, 

The revised edition of AppleWorks, the 2.0 
version has been with me for some time and I 
am having one particular problem wiih it. 
Succinctly its saving a large file lo an almost 
full disk. Here is my example and grief: 
When I load a large database, in this case a. 17k 
insurance list, set up last year in AW 1 .3 wh ich 
has not been used since. I can of course amend 
it in AppleWorks 2.0. But I then need to sav c it 
to the same 5.25 disk. In this case the disk is 

fairly full, and the new AppleWorks says 
'Insufficient room on this disk is it O.K. to 
delete the old copy?' 

I have answered 'Yes', and the new file is 
saved, apparently. The problem arises the next 
lime you warn 10 load the file, ii reads "Gelling 
problems trying to read FILENAME on /apw* 
or volume. 

It is LOST and so is my insurance list. For 
future use the way around this is now to delete 
the older file scpcratcly. 
Now this problem which I had thought was due 
to my own inability or equipment set-up has 
been highlighted two or three times in the 
Open Apple newsletter and it Seems thai 1 am 
not alone. A correspondent there in the March 
issue thinks that AppleWorks may be messing 

up the file header while doing the automatic 

delete and save. 

Is anyone else gelling problems with version 

2.0? Can anyone think of a way of rescuing the 

insurance file? 

Best wishes 

Huw Price. 

Reply: Thanks for the letter, / hope someone 
can come up with the answer. Your reference to 
Open-Apple Is timely as I have just received the 
March issue which wili be published in the 
June issue of ApplelOOO. If members wish to 
receive iheir very own copy of Open-Apple 
please see the special offer advert elsewhere in 

this issue. 

'Best - bar none' 

HawkhursU Kent 

Dear Jim. 

The February edition of Applc2000 has arrived 

and is the best publication in the field, - bar 

none!. Separating items about the Mac from 

those for Applell was a good idea, since one 

now knows where to look. A few points of 


1 . The ZIP chip, which I also saw advertised in 
A+ looks promising. I even thought of buying 
one to see what it would do, but gather from 
your wording that it is not available yet. Not a 
case of jam tomorrow, I hope. 

2. Two DTP programs were mentioned, 
Soflsync's Personal Newsletter, and Laser- 
writers Publish It. Any hope of a comparative 
review, with price? 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


3. Is Dave Ward minting the help desk all by 

himself? He has been most helpful lo me In the 

past and I am very grateful. Ditto Steve Mor- 


Keep up the good work, you are doing very 



Reply: Thinks for tfie compliments. Answers to 
your questions. 

1 . The 21 P chip I am informed is vapourwarc at 
present and is likely to remain so for quite a 
while. Sorry it did look a good idea. 

2. See inside this issue for both reviews. 

3. YesandNo.WellDaveisthcHcadOfficefor 
Help and he sorts out much more than he would 
like to admit, but he does have a team of 
EXPERTS to fall back on. By the way anyone 
can help just give Pave a ring. 

Keep up the good work 

North Qneensferry, Fife. 
Dear Sir. 

Keep up the good work, the journal has come a 
long, long way since I first knew it. 

Yours faithfully 
Mike Manckshaw 

Reply: Thanks for the compliments, I hope the 
Firth of forth is still as nice as when I worked 
a few miles west of the bridge? 

II users write' - 1 

Ilford Essex 

Dear Sir, 

I have been interested to read the correspon- 
dence concerning the lack of articles on the 
Apple II scries appearing in the magazine. 
Having purchased a 11GS in December 86 for 
use in our small business (alter at least three 
years searching for a computer which could be 
operated by my wife and I, starting as complete 
novices in our mid-fifties) the equipment has 
proved "friendly" and done all we have asked. 
However, we have been disappointed with the 
lack of interest in the equipment hy the main 
dealers whom seem only interested in the Mac 
range which, no doubt, is a more profitable 
exercise. Certainly, the TTGS was expensive 
compared with other small PCs. but we had 
hoped that the cost would be justified by back- 
up from the Apple Organisation with an in* 
creased range of software for business use. 
This did not occur and wc were beginning to 
despair of being able to proceed beyond Apple- 
Works (excellent programme though it is). 
Luckily for us we feel we have found a friendly 
dealer* through an advert in the magazine and 
we have already upgraded the equipment to 
enable us to operate a limited 'desktop' pub- 
lishing arrangement and we anticipate shortly 
operating a full accounts programme. 
Notbeing computer literate wenormally feel at 
a disadvantage when attempting to discuss our 


set-up with younger experts but are now able to 
get positive information and answers which we 
can understand and employ. 
I still feel we were right to purchase our IIGS. 
particularly after having sat alongside an 
equally aged friend struggling to find his way 

around an A d Manual, there must be a not 

inconsiderable market around for the II range 
forprospectivenovicc users who arc scared off 
by complications of other equipment at present 
available but who have never heard of ' Apple ' . 
In the meantime 1 laud the praises of our IIGS 
and wc will do all possible to support our newly 
found 11 interested dealer. 

Yours faithfully 
Derek Cox 

Repiy: Whay can J say, Bidmuihin have distinc- 
tion by being an Apple2000 Recommended 

Dealer - they DO give good support an that 

counts for a lot especially when you are n 

'It could be better' 

Stockport. Cheshire. 
Dear Jim, 

As a longstanding member of BASUG 
(Apple2000) I have always looked forward to 
receiving the journal especially since you took 
over as Editor because it has improved 
enormously. The content is excellent but I have 
just one criticism - the spelling and grammar 
For example, the February issue contained my 
review of Executive Office which 1 wrote with 
Word 3, using the spelling facility to check for 

errors. I hope you will allow me some space to 
disclaim responsibility for the errors in the 
captions to the illustrations ("whats" instead of 
"what's" and "sepcrate 1 * instead of "separate" - 
you pare on apple, you don't pere it). 
Indeed, now that the Graumad (Guardian) has 
goncovcr to computers, Appel 0200 could take 
over its mantle as the journal with the most 
errors. John Dyer's article on HyperCard must 
take first prize with three "it's" instead of "its", 
an "its" instead of "its", "base's" instead of 
"bases", "you" instead of "your", "advise" 

instead of "advice" and several grammatical 

Most spelling checkers will accept some of 
these errors but Sensible Grammar can detect 
many common grammatical errors and you can 
add your own phrases to its list of 2000. I 
reviewed the Apple II version of this product 
for Apple User and I would be delighted to 
review the Mac version for Applc2000. 
Again, congratulations on the journal. Keep up 
the good work. 

Yours sincerely 

Reply: Thanks for the letter, yes I know the 
spelling and grammar is not quite riglu but 
hopefully the new editor and his team will get 
U right. 1 have spent much of my time struggling 
to keep the material coming in and trying to 
make the magazine more pleasing layout wise. 
If I were to carry on as editor, the next obvious 
thing to tidy up is the grammar and spelling. 
However I am sure the new editorial team wilt 
f>et that right.' 

Ml users write' - 2 

Earls Barton, Northants 
Dear Sir. 
In response to your request for suggestions 

regarding the Apple II content of your maga- 
zine, may I suggest that you set aside a page for 
new readers. This page would probably not 
change much between copies, giving a state- 
incntof your objectives, what the magazine has 
lo offer and what to do to get help. A descrip- 
tion of the disc library, and what i t is for. would 
be of use to old members as well as new. Still 
on the subject of new readers, could you be 
more specific in your articles - for example, 
what is a 'Uni Disk', and what does n do, and 
not do? 

As one who did his 'apprenticeship' with 
Apple lis on the other side of the Atlantic, I 'm 
appalled at the lack of support for this product 
by Apple UK. And I don't expect any better 
from the new managing director, who has 
experience of Macs only. The lackof capitals in 
the job description is deliberate. 
1 am delighted that you are getting together 
with a US publication to increase your cover- 
age. No inference intended that they do things 
better over there; just differently. This might 
trigger off all sorts o f new approaches and ideas 
that will benefit us all. With no interest being 
shown by the makers of Apple Ds in this 
country, we need all the help we can get. You, 
as a magazine, arc probably our last hope, 
because the history of the brand shows that it 
was the owners of Apple Ds that opened up the 
possibilities and made the machine, and for that 
matter, the Company. 

Yours sincerely, 
Jeff Clayton. 

Reply: Thanks for the letter, you are not alone 
in your thoughts about the treatment ofApp let! 
users. Hopefully our tic up with Open Apple 
will help keep the Apple II pot on the boil! 

'Help for Mac Users' 

London N5 

I am writing this in a hope that it will help users 
changing from other machines to the Macin- 

Macintosh Users can now use their old printer 
with a Macintosh instead of paying out £450 
for an Imagewriter II. The options available 
1. Us Epstart (a driver for Epson Printers) £35 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

You will also require an Epson Serial Interface 
(£40) and Imagewriter I cable (£20). It works 
fine but will not work with HyperCard or spool 
ers. The company thai published Epstart have 
ceased trading so no upgrading will be pos- 

2. Use "Grapplcr" printer interface £70. The 
problem with this is that it uses an American 
power supply and restricts you to certain pi int- 

3. Sell yourold printer through Micro Mart and 
buy a cheap lmagcWritcr compatible printer 
from Morgan Computers, Tottenham Court 
road, London. Olivetti DM 100/3 costs just 
£150. Works with latest Imagewrticr driver 
(2.6) and the only problems are thai the ribbons 
arc small, expensive and hard to find. (£7.50 

from Olivetti, £6 from Morgan) 

I have a DM 100/3 and am satisfied with it. 

For faster speed you can use the Olivetti 

DM280 (£ 1 95) but its print q ualtty is not good. 

I hope this information is helpful to other 


Yours sincerely 
Saari Omar. 

Reply: Thanks for the information - / hope that 
U is useful to members who intend to purchase 
a Macintosh. Anyone e he with tips is invited to 
Icusallhwwofthemtlirough our leiterspages. 

AppleWriterll rules OK 

Dear Jim, 

My February issue of Apple2000 arrived yes- 
terday morning. As h user of an Apple 11+ I 
have to agree with many comments that ALL. 
Apple orientated magazines carry reviews, 
news and information on current items, how- 
ever in many ways the ageing 11+ cannot be 
called current. (How many avidly purchased 
and read motoring magazines carry articles on 
vehicles manufactured in 1980?). 
I suspect thai "Not Happy", Mr R Cook of 
Sunderland is like many other members of a 
great many clubs, in general ii's what ihey get 
out of the club thai counts and ihey happily 
ignore the fact that the club is only as strong as 
the members. The output of the club is the sum 
of the input of the individuals. 

The many hours of dedication of the few who 
do the work are frequently appreciated by ihosc 
who know just what is in vol v ed, even if we are 
often less vocal proportion of the member 
ship! ! Keep up the good work for the sake of the 
rest of us!! 

Any other Apple I[+, or Macintosh users in the 
North Wales and surrounding areas, we feel a 
little lonely out here sometimes. 
AppleWrlter U • the 'doyen' of W/P pro- 

Much has been written about w/p since this 
programme was released, however, in many 
ways I still prefer it to anyything else (not that 

I have many such packages). Yes, I know this 
has been written on a M ac, but the Apple Writer 

II still has many advantages. 

Maybe I have just got used to the "embedded" 


command system, but it docs have distinct 
advantages. Primarily because the commands 
are translated into ASCII which can be ex- 
tremely useful for data transmission and stor- 
age. In many ways too the embedded com- 
mands are simpler to use than complicated 
"mouse" driven menus. To receive a corrupted 
TRXT file with embedded commands can be a 
great ileal simpler for the illiterate computer 
user than giving up in disgust after spending 
hours trying to find out what obscure resource 
held a ruler setting on the Mac. I must admit, 
whilst a "mouse" docs have it's uses, the pri- 
mary operation of a w/p package is the use of 
the keyboard, it is inexcusable that ANY 
mouse operation is not duplicated by some 
form of keyboard command. 
In addition to simple w/p, my own Apple II is 

also responsible for printing a 150 page (A4) 
size Technical Manual, totally automated 
(except for a manual disk change), even to the 
extent that each page of each manual has the 
purchasers, individual identification included. 
Something I cannot do with my Mac w/p 
programme. I would like to add a 3.5 disk to the 
II and that would enable me to complete the 
whole task TOTALLY automatical! y. Just one 
great advantage of the macros built into the 
programme, my only complaint (yes, there's 
always at least one) is why, oh why. did Apple 
use copy protection and a non-standard 
DOS??. If I had the time to discover what they 
had done I could make use of a 128k RAMcard 
mounted as an additional RAM area. (I could 
even avoid buying the 3.5 disk in that case). 
If anyone has got 'clever' with AppleWnlcrll 
I would be very interested to hear from them. 
PS - -Some owners apparently consider the 
"mouse" is useful for keeping the cat quiet!! 

Yours faithfully, 
Graham Hind ley 

Reply: Thanks for a most interesting letter - 
hopefully you will find other Apple Users in 
your area if you livein the North Wales area 

please contact the P.O.Box for Graham's ad- 

AppicWriter 11 was my main hobby horse all 
those years ago whenlhadall. It isapowerful 
application if somewhat bemusing in some of 
its anttcs. However, as you rightly say it has 
very powerful features which would suite most 
wfp users. 

'Basic Fix for Tom' 

PeterGreen has written in to explain the oddity 
in Tom Wright's BASIC listing from the last 

Dear Editor, 

with reference to Tom Wright's problem, the 
solution lies in either changing line 35 or line 

DOS 3.3 commands need to !"»e preceded by a 
carriage return and the 'GET' statement in line 
35 causes the problem. 'GET* unlike 'INPUT' 
docs not require a carriage return from the user 
and so a 'PRINT" statement (which acts like a 
carriage return) should be included. The solu 
tion therefore is to change the line to : 
(In many cases a program will work fine with- 
out this addition, die reason being that a 
'PRINT' statement is included in the program 
at some point between the 'GET' and die 
'PRINT DS* and the user is unaware of the 
potential problem. In actual fact Tom Wright's 
program will work fine withjust two (not three) 
'PRINT DS' in line 60 and only one in lines 70, 
85 & 86, the firstoccurrencc in line 60 acting as 
the carriage return) 

The alternative cure to «hc problem is to rede- 
fine DS to include the necessary carriage re- 

50 DS - CHRS(13)+CHR$(4) 
This latter method is often recommended but 
under certain circumstances can disrupt the 
screen display and so 1 prefer to add 'PRINT* 
after every 'GET' statement. 
Finally, and on a different subj eel, I s hould like 
to express my wholehearted suppori for those 
members asking for more Apple ]| material in 
Apple2000 I ! 1 1 ! ! 1 1 M 1 1 

Yours Sincerely. 
Peter Grant 

Local Groups 

Apple2000 has a policy of supporting local groups, this policy Includes 

1. Mailing of information to ALL Apple2000 members In the local area. 

2. Helping with start-up of new groups. 

3. Help In getting speakers to attend meetings. 

4. FREE advertising in the magazine including listing In the Local Group 

If you want to take advantage of these special services contact Tom 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Apple // 

Cirtech Promdisk Adaptor 

Dave Ward reports on 
this add-on for the 
and plusRAM GS8 
memory expansion 
cards for the Apple llgs. 


plusRAM-GS2 ( 256K) £99.00 

plusRAM-GS8 (1024K) £249.00 

Upgrade GS2 (256K) £20.0 

Upgrade GS8 (1024K) £125.00 


ADAPTOR (64K) £88.00 

Upgrade (64K) £16.00 


Cirtech (UK) Limited 

Currie Road Industrial Estate 


Selkirkshire TDI 2BP 


Telephone 0896 57790 

□ SPEED is what most computer 
users require; once one has used a 
disk drive one will be most rcluc- 
tain lu use tape and likewise once having 
used RAM disks you will find ordinary 
diskettes extremely ponderous. Apple llgs 
users can now benefit from a battery- 
backed 256K byte card that can be at- 
tached to their Cirtech plusRAM-GS2 or 
plusRAM-GS8 memory expansion cards. 
Cirtech refer to this card as a PROMdisk 

The Cirtech PROMdisk Adaptor is a 
'piggy-back' board dial plugs into your 
plusRAM-GS2 or pIusRAM-GS8 and the 
manual clearly describes how this is 
achieved witfi the usual caveat regarding 
sialic electricity. Installation is very easy, 
although the hoards are rather a light fit, 
but it look mo just a few minutes lo com- 

The adaptor is incompatible with very 
early plusRAM-GS2 or plusRAM-GS8 
boards but this will noi be a problem if you 
ordcrboth boards together and unlikely to 
be a problem anyway. If you have any 
doubt just quote the number of your 
plusRAM-GS2 or plusRAM-GS8 when 
you order. When the board is fitted you 

will notice that it is in line with slot 7 and 
may baulk large cards being fitted in that 
slot such as Apple type memory cards 
including the plusRAM. Small cards such 
as the Cirtech CP/M PLUS card fit easily. 
Slot 7 is very popular for hard disk inter- 
face cards but I could not, unfortunately, 
carry out tests on such cards. 

You can use the 256K bytes of mem- 
ory on the Promdisk adaptor as a 
ROMdisk or as addressable memory. 
Most users will choose the first option so 
that they can have an 'auto-booting' Apple 
llgs that runs the application of choice 
after switching on the machine. To enable 
the smartport to recognise ihc ROMdisk 
you must install its driver before you do 

anything else. The 'plusRAM-GS* sup- 
port diskette supplied with your 
plusRAM-GS2 or piusRAM-GS8 card 
enables you to do this and the very simple 
procedure is fully described in the manual. 
Next you will need to formatthcROMdisk 
with the operating system that you will be 
using. Lets take a look at this: 

ProDOS: You may use any disk for- 
matter that will format all smartport disk 
devices such as Copy ][ plus (preferably 
versions 7.4 and greater) , Mousedesk, 
Apple llgs Finder or the ProScl Uniformat 
program. Remember at this point die 
smartport is unaware of the existence of 
your RO Mdisk so do at least a ' cold-hoot ' 
(open-apple+eontrol+reset) before load- 
ing your formatting program. I called my 
ROMdisk /ROMS but you may use any 
leg al name and then copy over the applica- 
tion of yourchoice. I used AppleWorks, as 
I suspect most users would, so lets take a 
look at this setup:- 

1> Best use AppleWorks version 2.0 
and copy over all the files onto your 
ROMdisk, remember both sides of the 
5.25" diskette. 

2> Since you'll have a plusRAM-GS2 
or plusRAM-GS8 you can add the Cirtech 

enhancements now if you haven't already 

done so. 

3> If you now switch the machine oil 
then at least 1 seconds Later switch It on 
again AppleWorks main menu will appear 
in about 5 seconds depending upon how 
fast you press keys when prompted. 

4> As you have a clock in the Apple 
llgs and all of AppleWorks is in 'RAM' 
the diree key presses are unnecessary. 
Fortunately you can 'patch' the file 
to cut-out diese obsolete keystrokes. Here 
are the patches which arc probably due to 
Alan Bird but arrived by other r^** 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

Enter Applesoft BASIC and ai the ] 
prompt type the following: 

] PREFIX /ROM5 - remember I used 
/ROM5 as che name of my ROMdisV! 


]POKE141fl9, 19 




5> Now when you switch on your 
machine again the AppleWorks main 
menu will appear in just 3 seconds. With a 
256K byte promdisk adaptor you will have 
62K or less remaining. 

I tried other applications such as Copy 
][ plus version 8.1 and even games all of 
which worked perfectly. Unfortunately 
ProDOS 16 applications will almost cer- 
tainly be unusable since ihey generally 
require more than 256K bytes. A pity since 
ProDOS 16 applications load so slowly 
from 3.5" diskeitcs! 

Before we go onto Pascal lets look at 
die way in which the smanpon of the 
Apple Ilgs assigns the disks that it finds. 
The following table lists me way these 
assignments differ depending upon the 
startup de vice you choose from the control 

Apple Ilgs you really should be using the 
latest version - ProDOS 8 V1.4 . 

If you take a close look at the tabic you 
will see that if you boot up from the 
ROMdisk you cannot use Pascal 1.3 on a 
3.5" diskette if you also have a RAMdisk. 

If you want to use Pascal 1 .3 you must 

'kill' the RAMdisk from the control panel 
and then make the machine recognise it by 
switching the machine off and then on 
again. Now lets look at Pascal 1.3 :- 

Pascal 13 is easy to set up. I used a 
3.5" master diskette which boots up into 
Pascal 1.3 (128K version). If you want to 
use the 3.5" diskette don't forget to 'kill' 
tlie RAMdisk. Bool up your master Pascal 
diskette and pressFforFilerand then V for 
Volumes on-line. Wilh no RAMdisk the 
ROMdisk will be assigned volume #5 - 
best to check though! Press Q to quit the 
Filer and then execute the Formatter utility 
Filer and copy over all ihc necessary files 
from the application diskette. Thats it! 
"When you switch on your machine you'll 
be in your application in a couple of sec- 
onds. Beware of a few older Pascal appli- 
cations which only know of 5.25" disk- 
ettes, though. 

To use Pascal 1.2 you'll require die 
Cirtcch's Unimate diskette, in my opinion 
though you would be advised to use Pascal 
version 1.3. 

device prosont 1 

n elot/drive assignment 


startup device 





3.5 drive 

3.5 drive 



2nd 3.5 drive 




3.5 drive 

2nd 3.5 drive 




1st 3.5 drive 2nd 3.S drive 



Please note that the numbers in paren- 
theses (.DI) etc. indicates the assigned 
Smartport number. The startup device 
always finds its way to the head of the tabic 
but otherwise follows the order: RAMdisk 
ROMdisk 1st 3.5 drive. ProDOS 8 ver- 
sions 1.1.1 or less will only sec the first 
two drives in the list. 

Pascal 1 .3 also has this problem which 
is the reason for this small diversion. Pro- 
DOS 8 version 1 .2 and later wil 1 see al 1 the 
devices but die third and fourth will appear 
to be in slot 2 and the fifth and sixth will 
appear to be in slot 1 ! ! If you are using an 

DOS 3.3 users will need the Unimate 
diskette also to allow the ROMdisk to be 
formatted correctly. 

The Critech CP/M version 3.0 system 
has very fast access from 3.5" diskettes 
anyway but you'll get a triple increase in 
access speed from the ROMdisk. For in- 
stance the CP/M 3.0 system takes just 7.5 
seconds to load from a 3.5" diskette 
against just under 2.5 seconds from the 
ROMdisk.The Cirtech CP/M version 3.0 
system is very easy to setup and you don't 
have to worry about the presence of the 
RAMdisk because CP/M version 3.0 rec- 

ognises all the smartport devices mat are 
connected. Wordstar and Turbo Pascal 
work fast and efficiently from the 

You may 'write-protect' iheROMdisk 
by choosing an option on the diskette 

supplied with your pIusRAM-GS2 or 

plusRAM-GS8 card or by altering a byte 
of the ROMdisk driver from the monitor. 
For instance from Applesoft prompt ] 

]CaLL -151 

The monitor* will appear so then type 
the following :- 




This write-protection is useful if you 
want to prevent files from being ac- 
cidently erased from your ROMdisk or 
access through the smartport. It won't 
prevent certain forms of program crashes 
or bugs from -writing or corrupting your 
ROMdisk. Lei's put this in perspective 
though. I never bothered to writc-prolcct 
the ROMdisk and suffered not one single 
problem over 5 months of use. During that 
lime my machine 'went-down 1 at least 
twice necessitating a power-on because 
some part of main memory was corrupted. 
I tried hard to create conditions that might 
corrupt the ROMdisk by running buggy 
programs but no problem ever occurred! 

Cirtech claim that the PROMDISK 
adaptor has a battery thai will keep 256K 
bytes of memory on the CMOS chips re- 
freshed for in excess of one month. Natu- 
rally, as I only have one Apple Ilgs com- 
puter I could not leave it off for that long. 
I did. however, manage 7 days somehow! 
On switching on AppleWorks was up and 

running in 3 seconds. I contacted Cirtech 
regarding this and was informed that the 
256K card would almost certainly retain 
its contents for well over the month 
claimed due to the very low power con- 
sumption of the CMOS chips used. 


Cirtech have almost certainly pro- 
duced a winner with this card who would 
wait at least 30 seconds for AppleWorks to 
load when it can be up and running from 
the PROMDISK adaptor in 3 seconds 
from switching on the machine. ~ 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 













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Apple // 

Merlin 8/16 

Dave Ward examines 
this Assembler package 
for the 8 and 16 bit 
Apple // processors. 

□ Almost all Apple // computer us- 
ers will have heard of the Merlin 
Assembler which has been around 
almost as long as the Apple // computer 
itself. Over the years the product has been 
steadily improved until this latest version 
for 128K byte Apple //e and later comput- 

The Merlin 8/1 6 system package com- 
prises a 220 page manual, two 5.25" 
diskettes and a 3.5" diskette. An cightpage 
addendum to the manual and an errata 
were also supplied with my system. One 
5.25" diskette contains the Dos 3.3 vers ion 
of Merlin 8 whilst the other 5.25" diskette 
contains the ProDOS version of Merlin 8. 
On the other side of this diskette arc a set 
of files which can be used to produce a 
fully commented disassembly of the 
ApplcsoftROM in yourmachinc. The 3.5" 
diskette contains the Merlin 16 program 
and utilities. 

AH three diskettes arc copyable ; that's 
good. Copy protection only serves to 
annoy genuine users and possibly pro- 
vides an ego boost to the author and those 
who very soon "break* the copy protection 
scheme. First of all you would be advised 
to make back-up copies of those diskettes 
that you will be using and store the origi- 
nals in a safe place. Use the copies that you 
have just made to make working-copies 
that you use regularly. 



MERLIN-15 3.11 


1987 by Glen Bredon 

19-DEC-Q7 20:12 


: Card log 


;Load source 


:Save source 


: Append f i le 


:Di3k command 


:Full screon editor 

:5ave object code 


:Set date 


Source: AS0901,LSOOOO 

Prefix: /MERLIN. 16/ 


When you booi-up the 3.5" diskette on 
an Apple IIGS you will quite soon be pre- 
sented with the following menu. On the 
way you will have noticed dial die system 
runs under ProDOS 8 version I.3B. The 
'B' indicates that this version of ProDOS 
has been patched by Glen Bredon to make 
quitting ProDOS pleasant. Even users of 
the oldest versions will instantly recognise 
the familiar MERLIN main-menu. 

Just press die key of your choice at the 
% prompt. 

C gives a catalog of the current Prefix 

under ProDOS and the current drive 
under DOS3.3 -opposite is a listing of the 
MERLIN. 1 6 master diskette. 

D This command under DOS3.3 just 
toggles the drive between 1 & 2. Under 
ProDOS, however, it allows you to give 
disk commands such as RENAMEing, 
BRUNning, BLOADing and BSAVEing 
files. You can change the PREFIX and 
take a look at the ONLINE volumes. I 
wondered what had happened to CRE- 
ATE since the CREATEion of directory 
files is required from time to lime. 

Loading, Saving and Appending 
source files (text files) is accomplished 
using the commands L,S & A. These files, 
on disk, have the characters .S appended at 
the end of the file name to label ihcm as 
source files. You just enter the filename 
less this .S. When you save a source file 
and specify a directory thai does not exist 
thai directory is created! Personally I pre- 
fer to be able to CREATE directories and 
have an error if I try to save a file to a non- 
existent directory. So that's why CRE- 
ATE is omitted! 

Pressing F from the main menu takes 
you into die MERLIN 1 6 Fullscreen editor 
(actually pressing E has the same effect). 
Entering the Fullscreen editor on the first 
occasion is just a Hide daunting as you are 
presented with an almost blank screen 
with a number I in the top right-hand 


Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 





























8-NOV-8 7 

18; 25 







8 -NOV- 87 






8 -NOV- 87 


8 -NOV- 8 7 










SI 200 




8 -NOV- 8 7 


















e-Nov-e 7 
























8 -NOV- 87 






8 -NOV- 87 
















8 -NOV- 8 7 


































e -NOV- 6 7 








8-NOV 87 








8 -NOV- 8 7 






USEO: 11 M 


Catalog listing 






corner which informs you of the relative 
line within the file where ihe cursor re- 
sides. The cursor is represented by an 
inverse I which is in the top left-hand 
corner (home). The inverse I indicates that 
the editor is in insert mode ; this can be 
changed to ovcrstrikc. You will also see a 
vertical line at the top right of the screen. 
This defines the point at which text on the 
screen will reach the end of a printed page. 
The position of this line may also be 
changed ; it isn't present on my screen 
because 1 have specified the printer to have 
1 36 columns. The Fullscreen ed itor has all 
the usual features that you will find in a top 
quality word processor such as inserting 
deleteing and moving blocks of text about, 
searching and replacing text, printing text 
etc. etc. In fact the MERLIN Fullscreen 
editor could be used as a word processor 
but it is setup to facilitate the entry of 
MERLIN source text which is not free- 
form. Like most 6502 assemblers the 
MERLIN source text must be entered in 
four columns although not all have to be 
used. These four columns are as follows :- 


Com ments - This column should begin 
witha;.Usinga; is good practice but is not 
usually necessary. Entering a ; from the 
beginning of any other column tabs the 
cursor to the start of the comment column 
which saves lime and keystrokes. Com- 
ments atlhccnd of each line of codecan be 

very useful, particularly when you need to 
service the code at a later date. MERLIN 
allows you to produce comments starting 
at the second character of me line if the 
first character is an asterisk *, This is very 
useful as it allows banners' to be placed at 
the start of a routine to describe its opera- 
tion. MERLIN has four commands to help 
with the production of banners ;- 

- (open -apple 81 
(.open-apple 9) 

-*T in. 

- (open— apple -J 

twmmm ■■■pi.Mi Mi i ■■■■ w nrm~-~~ = = = 

(open-apple ») 

Merlin supports basically three types 
of OPCODE :- 

1 The full 65816 instruction set of OP- 

2 Pscudo-OPCODES which Merlin 
interprets as commands. A few ex- 
amples are :- 

PAG - causes a formfeed during 

LST - controls listing to the output 
device during assembly. USE 

- tells Merlin lo USE a file of, usu- 
ally, MACRO definitions. 

3 MACROS are OPCODES that you 
the user define. They may be defined 
within the program or in a special 
file which is made known to Merlin 

by the USE pseudo OPCODE. Basi- 
cally MACROS are multiple linesof 
code that are used often and con- 
densed to a single line in the main 
program which saves clutter in list- 
ings. With MACROS you can, al- 
most, make your own programming 
Merlin 8/16 strongly supports MA- 
CROS and files of ready-made MACROS 
are supplied. Merlin allows you to produce 
some of the most sophisticated MACRO 
definitions; you can use conditional as- 
sembly such as IF-THEN-ELSE. 

Lets look at a 65816 MACRO defini- 
tion to push a long word (4 bytes) onto the 
stack :- 

IF #,U 

PEA *ia 



LDA ] 1+2 


LDA )1 




MAC; Define MACRO PushLong 
/Immediate value ? 
; Yes, push high word 
;push low word 
;Get high word 

;Push it onto Che 

;Get low word contents 
;Push it onto the 

;End of conditional 

;End of MACRO defini 
tlon-very important ! ! 

All this code could be condensed into 
a single line in your listing :- 

PushLong *S00O0 .-Create space for 

the result of call 

When writing programs for the Apple 
Ilgs listings can become very long as many 
calls will be made to the toolbox. MA- 
CROS make these calls take up considera- 
bly less space and so make listings man- 
ageable. Of course, ihe same amount of 
code is still generated! 

If you are writing ProDOS 16 applica- 
tions you will be required to assemble ihe 
them using the REL opcode and ihcn sub- 
sequendy LINK the resulting file(s) to 
produce a file of the type S 16 which can be 
launched by the ProDOS 16 launcher. 

All versions of MERLIN _ m 

arc very fast at linking and as- 

Aprll 1988 

Appie200O - For an Apple Users 


Apple // 





length of 

time to 







873 lines 

4.2 = 12,000 




873 lines 

5.6 - 9,000 

lines /sec 



873 lines 

13.0 = 4,000 

lines /sec 



Assembly speed 

senibling and I have constructed a litde 
table to show above. 

Both MERLIN 8 and MERLIN 16 
allow one to create RELocatable OBJect 
tiles thai can be linked: one or many Hies 
can be linked together Jo produce a final 
executable object file. Note that when you 
assemble a RELocatable file a filctypc 
LNK is produced. The linking capabilities 
of MERLIN 16 far surpass that of MER- 
LIN 8; MERLIN 16 supports 3 linkers. 
Object code files for Merlin 16 (Si 6 - file- 
type) must be relocatable otherwise they 
cannot be loaded by the ProDOS 16 

1. LINKER for MERLIN 8 source 


2. LINKER.GS for normal-sized 
MERLIN 16 source files. 

3. LINKER.XL for very large 
MERLIN 16 source files. 

There arc many demonstration files to 
allow the user to gel acquainted with de- 
procedure. Unfortunately one of the belter 
demonstration files thai can be assembled 
and linked into the program tocalculatePI 
need a little editing to work properly on ihe 
MERLIN. 8diskctte. First use acopy of the 
diskette MERLIN.8 lo carry oul your 
work. The problem arises because some of 
the files expect a volume name of /MER- 
LIN whilst others require /MERLIN.8. 

Probably the simplest way to make the 
linking process work is to change the vol- 
ume name to MERLIN. From the main 
menu choose option D and then type, at the 
: prompt- RENAME /MERLIN.8/MER- 
LIN Next you will require to load the file 
choosing oplion L from ihe main menu 
and then entering the above name. When 
the file is loaded you will find yourself in 
the command mode of ihe Editor. At ihe : 

prompt jusl type CH'VMERLIN.S'VMER- 
LIN" and when requested type A for All. 
Next type ASM to assemble the file and 
ihen go back to ihe main i nenu and save the 
source file. Finally choose E lo go back to 
ihe command mode of the Editor and ihen 
type NEW to clear die edit buffer - very 
important - and then type LINK S803 7 
MERLIN/P1/NAMES" and wilhin a few 
seconds the files will be linked and saved 
as an executable object file. To run go back 
to the main menu and choose oplion D and 
then type BRUN /MERLIN/PI/OBJ and 
follow the prompts. This, in my opinion, is 
an unfortunate nuisance that should have 
been tidied up by ihe publishers before 
offering ihe product for sale. 

All versions of MERLIN can be con- 
figured by editing a file on the disk 
PRAMS and ihen assembling ii back to 
disk. Since users of MERLIN 8/16 arc 
programmers this is quite a good way of 
configuring the program. However, it's 
not a bad idea to use a copy just in case. 
Some of the PARAMS you can adjust are 
as follows :- 

1. Printer configuration and paper di- 
mensions etc. 

2. Tabbing configuration lo allow 
longer labels to be used without 
producing messy listings. 

3. Sianup mode 658 16, 65C02 or 
6502. This can be important if, for 
instance, you want to write 6502 
code on a machine ihai has a 
65C02 or 65802 or 65816. You 
can specify tliat Merlin 8/16 only 
accepts 6502 OPCODES and flags 
any others as errors during assem- 

4. Case sensitivity of labels - some 
assemblers assume a = A - MER- 
LIN normally doesn't. 

5. You can alter some of the keys 
used by the editor to customise it. 
6) It is possible lo make MERLIN 

blank ihe screen if it is lefi on but 

The MERLIN 8/16 package contains 
many utilities which have over ihe years 
formed a formidable array. Let's look at a 
few of them :- 


Tli is utility simply sends a listing loihe 
printer to a disk file instead. This makes it 
possible to include listings into word proc- 
essor documents without having the te- 
dium of typing it in. 


These are very useful utilities which 
produce two tables, one ordered numeri- 
cally the other ordered alphabetically to 
list all die labels + addresses and ihe lines 
in the source code in which ihey appear. 


This is a clever name for MERLIN'S 
assistant which produces source code 
from a binary code file - that is 
SOURCEROR is a disassembler. There is 
the world of difference between a source 
code file and the binary code which it 
produces; this utility makes it very much 
easier for a programmer to examine any 
65816, 658O2.65C02 and 6502 code. 
There is a version of SOURCEROR on ihe 
MERLIN 16 diskette and versions of 
SOURCEROR on boih ProDOS and 
Dos3.3 MERLIN 8 diskettes. Operation of 
all three versions is well described over a 
few pages of the manual. 

SOURCEROR is extremely easy to 
use and it is possible to disassemble 1000 
byles of code in just a few minutes. 
Sourceror is so fast that it is best to do a 
quick disassembly making notes as you go 
along and then do the disassembly again to 
get it just right! Sourceror has a file named 
LABELS which it uses to replace hexa- 
decimal numbers by a name. For instance 
it could replace SFC58 with HOME - 
which would you prefer! You can make 
your own label definitions, which can be 
added to the labels file. 


Many of the MACRO definitions dial 
you use regularly will be stored in files on 
ihe diskette. It is, of course, possible to 
reference all such files of ^^ 
MACROS with the USE op- IW 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Apple // 

code but this could lead lo memory being 
wasted and hence problems with large 
source code files. MERLIN has a utility 
called MACGRN which allows yon to 
write a source file with many MACRO 
definitions. When you run MACGEN il 
rccordsall the MACRO references in your 
source file that are not defined and then 
requests you to enter a directory that you 
wish il to search for the definitions. 
MACGEN then produces a source file 
containing just those definitions which 
you may save and then USE in your main 
source file. 


Since APW assembler (Byteworks) is 
the assembler supported by Apple Com- 
puter Inc. it is highly likely that at some 
lime you will require to use source files 
produced by that assembler for MERLIN 
16. Although the APW (Byteworks) as- 
sembler has probably more features than 
any other assembler, including MERLIN, 
it uses very complicated opcodes and in 
my opinion, is not too easy to use particu- 
larly for beginners. CONVERTER is an 
Applesoft BASIC program that takes most 
of the donkey work of converting APW 
files for you. You may, however, still 
require some editing to finish the job. A 
demonstration file that has been converted 
is hidden in a directory! 


This is simply an Applesoft BASIC 
program that changes the file type. For in- 
stance i f you have a BINary file you could 
change it to a SYStem file using this util- 
ity. Since the conversion is carried out on 

Pi to so many places the main reason for its 
inclusion is to provide a demonstration of 
the LINKER. The program is divided into 
5 sub-programs which are assembled and 
then linked into a single binary fileandcan 
simply be BRUN from Dos3.3 or Pro- 
DOS. For those interested I used the pro- 
gram to calculate Pi to 1 0,000 dec imals on 
the Apple Ilgs and here is a little table 
showing some results by oihcr computers 
over the last 40 years:- 

The current record is held by a Japa- 
nese Super-computer which computed Pi 
to 133 million places in around 8 hours! 
The calculation of Pi can be useful as a 
check that a computer is performing cor- 

The back-side of the Merlin 8 ProDOS 
diskette contains a special form of 
Sourceror that allows one to produce a 
commented listing of the Applesoft inter- 
preter in die ROM of your computer. It is 
best to use a copy of tli is diskette as certain 
files are erased during the procedure. This 
listing is invaluable to anybody wishing to 
write machine-code that can be interfaced 
with their Applesoft programs, or for those 
who wish to know the internal workings of 
Applesoft. Considering the lime that 
Applesoft has been around it is surprising 
that so few bugs have appeared. The 
Applesoft listing points out most of diem, 
if you arc interested! 

Merlin 8/16 is available from MGA 
Microsystems for #129.95 inc. VAT. If 
you wish to take up the upgrade discount, 
however, you will have to purchase di- 
recU y from Roger Wagner Publishing Inc. 
When I upgraded my old 48K Dos 3.3 




Yea i 


Time (mins) 












IBM 704 




Shanks & Wrench 

IBM 7090 




Glen E Bredon 

Apple Ilgs 





tionally purchase a diskette to save keying 
in those programs. I chose not to purchase 
that diskette - in hindsight I consider thai a 
mistake! MGA Microsystems will be 
slocking both the aforementioned book 
and diskette for #19.95 (no VAT) and 
#15.95 + VAT respectively. 

Roger Wagner Publishing also supply 
a 65802 chip thai can replace the 6502 or 
6SC02 chip in an Apple //c computer 
which will let you use Merlin 16 on that 
computer. They advertise the cost as 
525.00. This, presumably, is one reason 
why the system is still ProDOS 8 based. 
The other, in my opinion, is that it boots up 
in a reasonable lime! 

Merlin 8/16 is aii excellent environ- 
ment for producing assembler programs 
for all Apple //computers. All aspects of 
the system are simple to understand and 
use. The full-screen editor is a pleasure to 
use even though il docsn'i use the same 
screen commands as AppleWorks. ( 
Surely by now AppleWorks screen com- 
mands should be the standard.) The sys- 
tem appears bug-free and the editor is re- 
markably resistant - 1 could find no way to 
cause it to 'bomb' - this is important be- 
cause you wouldn't want to lose all that 
text, would you? The manual is well writ- 
ten and easy to follow and almost free of 

Of all the Apple // assemblers that I 
have used Merlin has got lo be the fastest, 
cleanest and easiest lo use. If you are 
thinking of buying an assembler take a 

look at Merlin first. 

the file and catalog entry itself it might be 
a good idea to use a copy. 


This is a utility to calculate Pi up to 
115 16 decimals. Although it is nice to see 

version of Merlin I also purchased ihe 
book, written by Roger Wagner, 'Apple 
Ilgs Machine Language for Beginners' at 
the same time. We will be reviewing lhat 
book soon. The book containsquitealotof 
demonstration programs and you can op- 



Merlin 8/16 


Professor Glen E Bredon 


Roger Wagner & Tom Burns 




Roger Wagner Publishing Inc. 

1050 Pioneer Way 

Suite P 

El Cajon 

CA 92020 



MGA Mlcrosytems 


April 1988 

Appic-2000 - For all Apple Users 






Topics of interest to 
Macintosh owners:- 
Mac Recorder, Citadel, 
Casino Classics, Printer 
Interface II and a book 
on HyperTalk. 

The MacRecorder Sound Sys- 
tem allows Macintosh users to record real 
sound directly into ihe Macintosh com- 
puter. When used with a built-in micro- 
phone or an external microphone, any 
sound source (including television or ste- 
reo) can be accessed to make recordings. 
The MacRecorder System is compact and 
easy to use and is comprised of the 
MacRecorder sound digitizer, a Hyper- 
card™ application called Hyper Sound™, 
and SoundEdil™ which is sophisticated 
editing software. 

The possible applications for the 
MacRecorder are endless and it can be 
used to enhance HyperCard stacks wilh a 
variety of sounds and where applicable, 
narration can be added to demos, educa- 
tional and training programs, using your 
own voice. 

Macintosh II owners can even record in 
stereo hy plugging a MacRecorder into 
each of the serial pons. Sound can then be 
played back in stereo on a Macintosh II 
computer or in mono on a Macintosh SE, 
Mac Plus or earlier models. 

MacRecorder appears suitable for use 
with HyperCard. Using HypcrSoiind, a 
utility dial accompanies MacRecorder, 
sound can be recorded from within a 
HyperCard stack. HyperSound uses a 
familiar "digital cassette tape graphic" 
interface to guide users through she appli- 
cation allowing for easy access to sound 
files. Sound can be recorded, stored and 
played back using four sampling rates. 
The more frequent the rate of sampling, 
die higher the sound quality reproduced. 
Another feature of HyperSound is its 
"Copy Sound to Stack" button. Wilh this 
button any sound can be automatically 
pasted into any other stack. It can be saved 
and then retrieved when the stack is 

SoundEdit is a stand-alone application 

included wilh MacRecorder that allows 
Macintosh users to record, edit, play and 
save sounds into a variety of standard 
sound formats including:- HyperCard™, 
Studio Session™, VidcoWorks™ and 
Beep INITs. In addition, it can control 
sampling rates and provides 8 to 1 sound 
compression. Wilh SoundEdit's special 
effects, you can create sounds in loops, 
mix any sounds together, and use the filter 
like a graphic equalizer. 

Farallon Computing Inc. a Berkeley, 
C A based corporation , intend to announce 
several new applications for iheir 
MacRecorder during the next year. For 
additional information contact Farallon 
Computing at (415) 849.2331. 


A world oi knights, thieves . wizards and 
warlocks awaits gamers with the will to 
unravel the secrets lurking wiihin the 
mysterious catacombs of Citadel, new 
software fur the Macintosh. Set in an 
imaginary time and place, Citadel chal- 
lenges the fussiest fantasy role players 
with a do-it-yourself scenario and a com- 
plex and absorbing storyline. 

Following in the tradition of Wiz- 
ardry™, Citadel allows anyone with a 
Macintosh to quest in an unknown world 
and to vanquish dragons, serpents and 
other foes. Three dimensional graphics 
and digitized sound enhance the experi- 
ence, as players traverse the subterranean 
stone maze in search of the secret il holds. 

In Citadel, players create their charac- 
ters from attributes they select from the 
game's six menus. Players determine their 
characters' background, including ele- 
ments like 1 ineage, gender, race and social 
class. Through the combination of these 
attributes, characters arc "born." Players 
can create and store up to eighteen charac- 
ters for each adventure, using as many as 
six of them during a quest. 


Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Citadel gives you the ability to create 
characters in depth from birth lo cam- 
paign; draw original characters, objects 
and scenery or use prc-drawn icons; de- 
velop character traits tlirough continued 
interaction; move through on-screen tun- 
nels, viewing them head-on in 3-D; play 
with several open windows at a time. More 
information can be obtained from Mind- 
scape, Inc., 3444 Dundee Road. North- 
brook, IL 60062, Tel:- 312/480-7667. 

Casino Classics™ 


Interface II is ideal for texiprinting to 'dai- 
sywhccl' and dot-matrix printers. The 
US A price is $95.00 and more information 
can be obtained from DaiaPak Software, 
Inc. 14011 Ventura Boulevard, Suite 507, 
Sherman Oaks, California 9 1423. 

Price Increase 

Greene Inc. Of Monterey, California 
have announced a price increase for their 
free-form database desk accessory pro- 
gram, QuickDEX, for the Macintosh. The 

The original 
casino games for 
the Macintosh, 
Mac-Jack™ , 
and Mac-Slots™ 
have now been 
put together and 
are being offered 
in one complete 
package. The 
disk now gives a 
choice Of Black- 
jack, Poker, Slots 
or Keno and lite 
USA price is 

S39.95 from DataPak Software, Inc, 
14011 Ventura Boulevard, Suite 507, 
Sherman Oaks, California 91423. 

Printer Interface II 

Would you like your Macintosh to print 
to non- Apple printers? If so then Printer 
Interface II may be what you are looking 
for. Printer Interface II is advertised as 
heing compatible with all System soft- 
ware, including the very latest System and 

No special hardware is required for the 
operation of Printer Interface IT other than 
the correctly wired cable; it is 100% soft- 
ware based. It is also advertised as driving 
any serial printer from a Macintosh. 

Printer Interface II works with all die 
Macintosh models and with any standard 
application which allows printing from 
'draft* mode. Installation is easy and re- 
quires no special procedure once installed 
I as the desk accessory 'Chooser' can be 
used to select your printer. 
DataPak Software say that the Printer 

which sits inside the back cover of the 

The book has tweniy-six chapters and 
three appendices. The early chapters cover 
background material about HyperTalk 
and the HyperCard environment. Next 
come chapters on HyperCard design, and 
essential, practical information about 
HyperTalk programming, such as how to 
use the script editor and HyperTalk nam- 
ing conventions. 

Serious exploration of the operation of 
the HyperTalk programming language 
comes next, and 
the following top- 
ics are covered in- 
tensively: - 

• system mes- 

• keyboard, 
mouse and file I/O 

• control struc- 
tures and logical 

• controlling 
stack flow, card 
flow, and interac- 

• text and data 
management rou- 

new suggested retail price of $60.00 
(USA), came into effect at the end of 
February. Greene Inc. have laid the blame 
for die price increase on increased market- 
ing, research and development costs. 
Greene Inc. arc currently looking for new 
products to publish from skilled develop- 
ers who are willing to share some of the 
risks and profits in getting new products to 
the marketplace. They feci that many 
single product developers in the USA are 
finding it increasingly difficult to find 
distributors and dealers willing to carry 
their products. This is a far cry from a few 
years ago when dealers and distributors 
were begging for Macintosh software with 
sometimes little regard for quality. 

HyperTalk Programming 

A very useful new book is now available 
for HyperCard programmers. The title is 
'HyperTalk Programming' by Dan Shafer 
and it is part of Hayden Books Macintosh 
Library Series. An added bonus for pur- 
chasers is a HyperTalk Language Poster 


• dialog boxes and their use in Hyper- 

• menu management 

■ the use of visual and graphic effects 

• sound and music 

• maths within HyperTalk 

• action-taking commands 

• property-related commands 

• communications commands 

• script and other related commands 
More advanced topics follow, including 

practical advice from experienced Hyper- 
Talk programmers, how to extend the 
power of HyperCard and HyperTalk itself, 
how to design stacks for the maximum 
effect, and a survey of useful free and 
shareware programming tools. 

Two substantial scripts are included so 
that the reader can examine them, take 
ihem apart, modify them and learn from 
them. An address is given from which a 
disk of the programs is available for those 
not wishing to type them in. 

HyperTalk Programming mjm 

costs £ 18.95 from bookshops. ■ 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



by Bill Pearce 


AlphaPop belongs to the Lisp family of computer 
languages. Of this group, Logo is perhaps the best 
known 'dialect' and Turtle Graphics certainly the 
best known feature. Devotees regret what they regard as 
the disproportionate attention to Turtle Graphics at the 
expense of the general capabilities of the languages. 

Their basic concept is quite interesting. There is a 
serious attempt to imitate the manner in which the 
mind appears to function, both in the flexibility of 
handling data and in the creativeness of the Language, I 
shall attempt a brief explanation of these two features. 

Flexible data handling 

I quote the Manual - "Variables may contain anything". 
It really means anything: numbers, characters, strings, 
procedures, lists, or any combination of these. All ob- 
jects, including the program code itself, are treated as 
data. Bundle together whatever data you wish, assign it 
to x, and that is what x stands for. It seems a great idea. 
Lhe system itself can identify the items stored in x (both 
the values and the datatypes). This may imitate how the 
mind handles data, but the poor human does not know 
what the computer system knows - it is outside his/her 
ken. Consequently there has to be a host of procedures 
called 'recognisers' (I counted 26 of them in the index) 
which enable the user to recognise what kind of object is 
under scrutiny. Examples - isarray, islist, isrect, isstring. 
These procedures return true if your guess is correct, and 
false otherwise (or in some cases they 'generate a 
mishap', which is AlphaPop for Error Message). In other 
words, you need die facility to ask the computer what it 
is thinking of! 

The principal block of data is a list. List handling 
capabilities are perhaps the main strength of 
AlphaPop and probably also the main source of 
difficulty. I could not possibly give in a few words the 
full flavour of these capabilities but here is an example 
culled from the manual that illustrates something of both 
die list handling and the 'artificial intelligence' ambitions 
of AlphaPop:- 

: alladd ( 1 I all gods are cruel 1 

I all rabbits are harmless f 

[ all men are mortal ] 

I all gods are omnipotent 1 

[ socrates is a man ] 

I mickey is a mouse I 

I olympus is a god 1 

I fluffy is a rabbit 1 

[ plural of man is men ] 

I plural of god is gods 1 

1 plural of rabbit is rabbits I 

I plural of mouse is mice II), 

: forevery | [ ?name is a ?x 1 [ plural of ?x is ?y 1 
: ( all ?y are ?z 1 1 do 

: ["name is "z 1 => 

: endforevcry; 

The above routine searches all the given strings for 
matches. ? stands for wildcard the value of which 
goes into the following variable, e.g. name.— > 
means PRINT the preceding information 8 means use the 
value of the following variable When the routine is RUN, 
the following printed output is obtained 0* signifies prin- 
ted output):- 

•• (fluffy is harmless! 

•• [olympus is omnipotent! 

•• (olympus is cruel] 

•• (socrates is mortall 

An extremely interesting example illustrates in a 
truncated version a program used in the "Com 
puters and Thought" course at Sussex University. 
The program calculates the quickest route from A to B 
on the London Underground. Given ridiculously little in- 
formation - a simple list of statements - plus 2 minutes 
per connection and 3 minutes per interchange, the 
program will assuredly deliver the correct result. In the 
process it will not waste time testing any route that will 
take longer than the minimum time. It will be fooled by 
journeys involving coming in on one fork and going out 
on another fork of the same line, but only to the extent 
that it cannot detect that a change is necessary. I cannot 
see on the existing network any situation where a wrong 
route would be produced, only a three-minute under-es- 
timation of die lime taken. Using the present data struc- 
tures, it would be possible to detect these changes if all 
links on all lines are stated in the same direction, The 
stored routes would then need to carry additional infor- 
mation to indicate whether the link was established in a 
forward read or a reverse read, if the next link disagrees 
in direction with the previous one then a change is sig- 
nalled, add three minutes and stay put. A change of line 
would need to be signalled, possibly by a neutral direc- 
tion symbol. [Note to Cognitive Applications Ltd. - the 
data in the truncated version provided did not cover the 
situation described, so I extended it in order to prove my 

This particular program interests me from another 
point of view. A person looking at a plan of the 
Tube sees immediately the best route or routes. 
There is no way the blind computer can take advantage 
of this simple, helpful visual display. The program, for all 
its cleverness, is like teaching an elephant to stand on its 
trunk. It is a brilliant exercise in programming, but I 
suspect the only useful Route program will be a huge 
database giving instant access to the required information 


Apple20O0 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

- and this Pop program could of course be extended to 
create such a database! I must apologise for being SO 
critical, but I confess that all attempts at 'artificial intel- 
ligence' appear to be a misconception and misuse of the 
real capabilities of a computer. 

Cxeative use of language 

The most attractive feature of the Lisp languages is 
their open invitation to create new words; or 
should I say to define new words. You have the 
impression that you are creating the language. This is 
something of an illusion, because normally it does not 
differ so greatly from naming a label followed by a 
routine in any language. The DEFPROC on the BEEB 
must run it pretty close. But it does extend to the 
capability of redefining practically the entire language, 
with some necessary exceptions. This kind of flexibility 
again gives rise to interesting possibilities, but also 
creates additional problems. The programmer is expected 
to deal with the computer as though dealing with 
another person with powers of independent thought. 
This is really where the language falls down. The com- 
puter is not intelligent. Enormous amounts ol memory 
are required to simulate simple actions that the mind per- 
forms instantaneously. The Lisp languages are 
notoriously slow in operation, greedy of memory, and 
fiendishly difficult to master. It is my view that they are 
attempting to make a silk purse out of a sow's ear. They 
are none the less stimulating and educational The 
manual gives a very detailed account of exactly how the 
language works, how the two stacks, the Control Stack 
and the User Stack, normally operate, and how the user 
can manipulate these stacks directly. Operations that are 
normally transparent to the user are laid bare so that the 
advanced user will in effect be writing a program in a 
language of his/her own design. 


Altogether the most impressive feature of AlphaPop 
is its documentation. There are two large spiral- 
bound open-flat volumes, one being the Language 
Guide and the other the Alphabetic Reference Manual, 
both practically error-free, both logically and clearly laid 
out. The Guide anticipates many difficulties the learner 
may face. It spells out, for example, the need to make a 
copy of a variable before sharing its value with another 
(so as to preserve the original value and create a working 
copy) otherwise the intended copy will overwrite the 

The environment 

It was relatively easy to come to terms with the en- 
vironment. A loaded program, which appears listed in 
the Edit window, can be compiled using the menu 
i option 'Compile window'. In.stnictions on how to run the 
I compiled program then appear in the Top Level' (Com- 
mand) window (which stores a complete record of the 
|, session). Gelling to grips with actual code is a rather 
slow process. The language is extremely rich and 
flexible. Consequently the guide has 10 be quite wordy - 
there is an awful lot of reading to do before you know 
enough to attempt anything. Complexities of indicating 
datatypes are a typical example - again I quote - "To 
Pop, characters are just an alternative way of expressing 
certain numbers". This is a further indication of the con- 
fusion that can arise, and there are four recognisers to 

identify characters: isuppercode, isloujercode, isalphacode, 

I remain confused on one point: the difference bet- 
ween identical and equal, if 1 have encountered the 
distinction before, I have long since forgotten it It re- 
quires explanation. My current theory is that perhaps a 
copy cannot be considered as identical to an original. 

Macintosh compatible 

In the present version the user has rather limited ac- 
cess lo die power of the Macintosh. The most serious 
limitation is ihe inability to print from within a 
program. Command-Shift-4 (or 3) suddenly become great 
assets. This enabled me to print the screen of 'm-mind' 
(Mastermind). You are given some control over windows, 
and many (pseudo) Quickdraw routines are implemen- 
ted. There is even a useful, fixed-size 'retained* (meaning 
self-refreshing) graphics window, in addition to a non- 
retained, resizable graphics window. No doubt that at the 
time of writing, many of these limitations no longer 

sample program (Mastermind) using » 'retained' window 

AlphaPop, written in Aztec C, ft available J rum: 
Cognitive Applications Ltd., A Silkuood Terrace, Brighton, BN1 21M 



Make sure you support your group 
by buying from Shop2000 

We are now able to accept 

VISA cards and Mastercards 

in addition to payments by cheque 

All prices arc quoted inclusive of VAT, 
Postage & Packing 





April 1983 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



Macintosh II P.D. 
Software comes of age. 

Tom Wright looks at 
whats available for the 
Macll in the software 
library and was quite 
suprised at what he 


KOI -OR is a Con trol Pane! Accessory (For 
the Macintosh II) which was written by 
Russ Wetmore, Copyright is held by 
Apple, distribution is permitted provided 
thatKolorisnot sold. This program works 
well and I rccom mend it to anyone who is 
either wanting to brighten the normal Mac 
II display, or, wants to take advantage of 
this opportunity for improving the display 
clarity for work purposes. You can also 
have some fun with it ! 

Kolor allows you to change the default 
colours associated wilh ; 

a. Controls (buttons, check 
boxes, radio buttons, and scroll 

b. Windows 

c. Menus 

d. Highlighting (most notably 
used for text highlighting) 

It docs this by creating resources 

which are used by the various Managers as 
default colour tables if an application 
hasn't supplied them. 

The installation procedure for Kolor is 
straightforward, you simply drag the 
Kolor Icon directly into your System 
Folder; the next time that you open the 
Control Panel you will find the Kolor Icon 
displayed in the scrolling list. 

Select the Kolor icon to choose your 
personalized colors, you will then see a 
window something like the one below : 

Colours are changed by selecting one 
of the areas indicated by "A" through 
"C*\you can always change things back to 
ihe way they were before you started by 
clicking on button "D" so it is safe lo 

Kolor will only allow you to edit colors if 
your screen is showing 16 or more colors. 
For screen read ANY SCREEN if you arc 
using multiple screens. 

Control Panel 


I.-.v.v.v.v.-.v- I 








''. i \ '• \ 

■ ... : 

- ; . 

f Button") Q-JCh^ck «-R«di© K^tUIHl lUUUM^CH 
I Border ] Fill | Text | Thumb 


Title* =eil 

□ Title- 

\ «fc File 

der I Title text |~"^^^^^round 1 

Lines/boxes ] Title bar 

Specie J Menu bar 


3£ Z 

Cut «K 

Copy 3£ C 

E> -^«-«-^w «M- II 

I Menu title text 
T| Item background 
I Item text 

.ck brown 
fox jumps over the 


dog . 

[ Reuert ] 





Appio2000 - For all Apple users 

April! 988 


When you select a color box, or ihe text 
highlighting area, you'll see the "Color 
Picker", if you're not conversant with the 
"Color Picker" yet get your Macintosh II 
manual out again. 

The System file is only updated for your 
new colours if you : 

a.Exit Kolor by clicking on 

another icon in the Control Panel 

scrolling list. 

b. Close the Control Panel. 
Some applications have their own colour 
tables so don't be too worried if your 
selected colours are not visible immedi- 
ately. In the event that you really cannot 
stand your selected colours simply hold 
down the Option key while selecting the 
Kolor Icon in the Control Panel then close 
the ControIPancl, all colours will then be 
returned 10 their factory settings. 

GRAYV1EW 1.01 

GRAY VIEW 1.01 was written by David 
Fry and is a Macintosh II routine for con- 
vening Thunderscan SCAN files into '32 
grey shade* images which can be used as 
StartupScrccns as well as for pleasure. 
Grayview can also be used to view any 
PICT resource. While this program was 
especially created for converting gray 
scale Thunderscan images any PICT, in- 
cluding color ones, can be viewed. 
In comparison with Version 0.8. Version 
1 .0 1 incorporates the following additional 
or improved features: 

a. Pictures can now have unlimited 

b. Full clipboard support. 

c. A six-fold increase in SCAN 
document conversion speed. 

d. Option to save file as a MacDraw 

e. Much better region selection for 
saving only sections of files or 

f. Free space available shown in 
About box. 

Converting from a Thunderscan file to 
a gray scale image is straightforward if 
you have your monitor set to at leasi 256 
colors/grey scales (more than enough for 
the 32 needed to render the image faith- 
fully), although it is a fairly slow process. 

The Apple menu is modified by 
Grayview to enable the user to ident i fy the 
number of bytes available for a picture, 

and to keep track of how much space 
pictures take. Other menu options include 

a. specifying which file is to be 

b. saving files as either PICT 
resource or MacDraw PICT files 

c. saving a portion of the acuvc 
window image 

d. closing the active window or desk 

e. quit program 

f. copying and pasting portions of an 
image in the active window, copied 
images can be freely moved to other 
applications using the Clipboard or 

Other Mac II items. 

Some of the Mac ][ items available from 
the Apple 2000 PD library are : 

RAINBOW 1 is the most beautiful dem- 
onstration of colour on the Mac II that I 
have seen to date, although it does not 
appear to have a practical use I recom- 
mend it to all Mac II users (it works in grey 
scales as well). 

After double-clicking on the folder the 
user is treated to a continuously moving 
curve plot which gradually fills the screen. 
During and after plotting the colour and 
brightness of each curve is is continuously 

Plotting is ended by a single click on 
the rodent (sorry, that should have read 
mouse) button, which results in a stack of 
six discs being drawn, the discs are then 
revolved by using directional colour 
changes. The final item that appears is a 
banner bearing the legend "Produced, 
directed and filmed entirely on location by 
Keith McGreggor, Pixel Resources Inc". 
My only disappointment with this demon- 
stration isthelackof a facility for pausing 
the plotting process, or saving it at any 
stage, but men that was not the purpose of 
the program. 

about thirty five (suffered crossed eye- 
balls trying to count them) icons which 
slowly drift randomly about the screen. 
The program works in grey scales as well 
as colour while displaying the icons which 
have obviously been extracted from a 
range of applications. Andy Hertzfeld 
wrote this one. 

enon Digital Systems using source code 
by Xerox Corporation . This program is an 
unremarkable kaleidoscope which the 
user is able to influence by providing alter- 
native parameters to those provided as 
defaults. The program worked in grey 
scales as well as Colour but I did find that 
(with my setup) exit from the grey demon- 
stration was via the 'resume' avenue. 

COLORBOXES f by Ncal Trautman. 
displays rapidly drawn coloured boxes 
whic h is I suppose what you should expect 
from the title. 

SPIROGRAPH MAC Et no indication of 
the author of this program. Colour of Lhc 
plotted lines is varied randomly as is the 
background colour. Unimpressive. 

TESSERACT I can't comment on this 
program beyond the fact that double click- 
ing on the icon crashed everything ! The 
situation was restored following a panic 
phone call, advice was to use the Update 
facility from Apple HD SC Setup, at least 
two other people have also experienced a 
problem with this programme but Norah 
Arnold tells me that several other Mac II 
users have used it without problems. I am 
now busy writing fifty thousand lines for 
not reading Norah's advice at the begin- 
ning of the Mac Software Catalogue, ie 
that I should have been testing this soft- 
ware by booting from a floppy Lhat con- 
tained the program. I am leaving Tesscract 
alone unless somebody can tell me a safe 
way of activating it. 

STARS II is a desk accessory which 
produces a screen display designed to give 
the impression of travelling through 
space. The screen background is black 
with white stars moving towards and past 
the user. Exit from the display is via a 
single click. 

MG ZOOM IDLE is another desk acces- 
sory. When activated it produces a black 
screen on which is drawn, at dizzying 
speed, a trail of box outlines which move 
rapidly about the screen. Exit from the 
program is via a single click. 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



Network News 

The latest news, tips 
and gossip from Delphi, 
Infomac and Usenet; - 
about HyperCard, 
MultiFinder secrets, and 
languages for science. 

□ From: RJWM 

Subject: RE: Launching or 
Sublaunching Another Appli- 

Two related questions. The sublaunch 
facility that HyperCard uses does not re- 
quire System 4.1-it works perfectly well 
with 4.0. How docs it work? How can you 
make the launch of a document with an 
application from HyperCard into a one 
way launch, i.e. so it docs not return to the 
HyperCard stack upon quilting the 
launched document? 

From: DEWI 
Subject: RE: Launching or Sub launch- 
ing Another Application 
The first question first: 
I'm slightly confused by the question, 
unfortunately. What do you mean by 
"return to the original document"? Let's 
hope I answer the correct question... 
If the scenario is program A gets called 
with attached document A, program A 
sublaunches B with document B. then 
under MultiFinder you have the choice of 
keeping doc A open, or re-opening it after 
the sublaunch (just in case you weren't 
under MultiFinder and the launch didn't 
return). Unfortunately, you can't test for 
MultiFinder, you can only test for exis- 
tence of die WaiiNextEvent trap and 
Apple warns you that this might exist in 
the (non-MuIli) Finder in some future 
system release (sigh). You can uniquely 
define the location of the document by the 
triad (volume refnum, directory ID„ name) 
and re-open immediately after the launch. 
If you're saving the location of a document 
in a Resume File, then you might want to 
save die Volume name instead (if you 
reboot, and i nsert your floppies in a differ- 
ent order, it'll have a different refnum). 
The only glitch with this is with some 
esoteric networks where the directory IDs 
are dynamically allocated. Saving a pa- 
thname, a la HyperCard, would solve this 

but is general ly considered a bad idea with 
HFS. 1 don*t understand all the ramifica- 
tions of this yet.. 

In summary, working directories and di- 
rectory IDs arc a bit of a mess in my 

And the second question: 
The original sublaunch (the one that meant 
dial the sublaunchi ng program didn' t have 
to live in the system folder) was in 4.0 but 
undocumented. It was officially an- 
nounced as a 4.1 feature. The 4.0 version 
may be buggy for all I know. 
I'm really not too sure what HyperCard 
1.0.1 does, It's difficult to sublaunch with 
an attached document and then turn 
around and exit with MultiFinder, since 
the working directories get wiped out 
before the sublaunchcd program can use 
them. But then again, under MultiFinder 
HyperCard can only find documents at the 
root, which doesn't need a working direc- 

Oh well, I said it was hairy... All of the 
above is mildly dubious, since a fair 
arnounl is empirical rather dian official 

Apple gospel. 
Best of luck! Dcwi 
Subject: Red Ryder 10.3 thruput 
One thing I just remembered. One of my 
friends was so bugged by the apparent 
slow thruput of Red Ryder 10.3 that he 
methodically stripped his INITs out one 
by one. It turned out that the FKEY Pop- 
Key thingie by Carlos Weber just about 
halved the thruput. When that was elimi- 
nated, Red is back to almost good. For 
those who can't live without FKEYS, a 
new alternative albeit commercial is con- 
tained within FonlDA Juggler Plus, $60 
retail which can have up to 12 open fkeys, 
fonts, sounds (Mac II sounds on a 
plus! )D As, e tc. You can have up to 32,000 
Flccys with a renumbering accesory also 
included. Also a hot key to show you all 
the active all their sizes to 24 


AppIe20O0 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

points, with any attribute (bold.underline, 
etc.) AND an FKEY that will allow you to 
print a line of text in all the available fonts 
in any style. Coded by Paul Cozza, a 
superb and responsive individual. This 
will be de butted at the Show, so look for it. 

Subject: RE: What tools for serious sci- 
entific stuff? 

You might want to look at ABSOFT 
FORTRAN 2.3. I believe that this is the 
only FORTRAN that presently uses the 
math coprocessor of the Mac II. This is 
likely to be better for you than PASCAL or 
C because: 1) You appear to be more 
familiar with FORTRAN 2) FORTRAN 
is an excellent language for numeric type 

Microsoft Fortran (which is based on Ihc 
ABSOFT product) is not yet up to a 
coprocessor supporting level. There may 
be a FORTRAN compiler that works with 
MPW (ABSOFT has its own linker...). 
The UNIX system is not yet. as far as I 
know, officially released. 

Subject: What tools for serious scientific 

I've used the Absoft Fortran 2.3 - it 
handles the coprocessor OK. Seems a 
reasonable FORTRAN. I've ported scien- 
tific applications from a VAX with not too 
much trouble (there are some differences 
in syntax of non-Fortran77 statements, but 
they are minor). You might also consider 
getting MacFace (from McFaceware, 
1310 N.Broadway, Urbana, IL 61801 ; 
(217)-328-5842) for interfacing Mac type 
windows, menus, etc. In fact, I think the 
same set of routines can be called from C. 
At any rate, 1 recommend that approach - 
the scientific programming part of the 
project is unfortunately a minor effort 
compared to making the Mac part work 
like we've come to expect. The MacFace 
approach evens that somewhat, but its still 
a lot of work. Good luck. 
On a related topic - I'd like to sec more of 
those research type programs available a 
litt lc more generally. Went to a seminar at 
MIT a while back where the subject was 
the new supernova. The speaker gave a 
very nice topic talk and mentioned that he 
had this Mac program that would simulate 
the results of different initial conditions on 
observations. It would have been very nice 
if he had had a few disks with him. More 


generally I'm rather surprised that there 
arc not more of those type of programs, or 
an interest group on a net somewhere (or 
maybe I've just missed it). 
Mike Burns Rowland Institute 

From: U00300@earn.hasara5 
Subject: Re: HyperCard Dialing with 

This is a reply to an earlier message 
I found out how to get HyperCard's Dial- 
function to work with a modem: the mo- 
dem must assume DTR to always be true. 
Turn the modem off, set the appropriate 
dipswitch on or inside your modem, and 
switch the modem back on. On my mo- 
dem, a lightspced 1200, 1 did this by re- 
moving the front panel and setting switch 
1 DOWN. After that it worked! Hope this 
works for you too... 
Mactijn Koster 

Subject: Never mind "who am I?" - 
Who are YOU? 

Some of you wi II take this message to be a 
gripe (it is!). To some it will be a plea (it 
is!). Inothersitmaystrikeafamiliarchord 
(if it docs. let's hear about it). 
Forme (a Technical Author at aUniversity 
of London Computer Centre) the Mac is a 
dream come true. This little machine has 
changed my method of working (some- 
times I think it has changed my life, but 
this is not the place to go into detail!) to 
such an extent that it is now, trucly, my 
workstation. I use it as a terminal, for WP 
and for DTP (manipulation of photo- 
graphs next, I hope!), hallows me to pay 
proper attention to the visual aspects 
(something I consider important) of com- 
munication - yes, I know, the content is all 
important but there are too many DRY 
manuals out there! 

As well as being important to me, I am 
always interested in Mac developments 
and, indeed, in any Mac-related info. 
Computer Cenues are service centres so it 
is important that information is passed on. 
I was, therefore , well pleased to hear of the 
MAC-USER service initiative on 
IRLEARN. It took me some time to con- 
nect to it (gripe/plea number one!) since I 
have lilUe knowledge of networks beyond 
JANET (UK Academic Network) and 
now I am beginning in wonder what I have 
let myself in for? 

(Gripe/pica number two coming up). You 
people seem to speak a different language! 

By now I know what a LISTSERV is (I 
think) but you don't make it easy! As to 
how I send commands to sign off, retrieve 
an index, or gel general info, I have no clue 
whatever. It all sounds terribly interesting 
but if you don't make it easier, it is of no 
use to me. There is just not enough time in 
a day to spend a valuable portion of it 
trying to fathom networks which may or 
may not be useful (gripe/plea diree). 
It could, of course, be that I am in the 
wrong place and that LISTSER Vs such as 
MAC-USER are for specific Mac people 
(those with DEC equipment, perhaps?). If 
so I will leave you in peace and sign off, 
but what a shame that would be. It is 
obvious to me that info on Mac-related 
topics is very valuable and will become 
more so. What is also important is that we, 
particularly on this side of the Atlantic, do 
not reinvent the wheel, 
To end (at long last I hear you cry!). You 
undoubtedly provide a useful service and 
one which could be valuable to me (and 
others like mc). However, you arc making 
too many assumptions about your con- 
sumers (chief gripe/plea). I would love to 
have access to the US files and to the 
electronic newletters such as INFO-MAC, 
and to communicate with Mac-users 
world wide. But I need more info. (What 
on earth an RFC822 is, forexample, I have 
no idea!) 

Keep on Maccing, but let mc know if I'm 
in the wrong place! 
Robert Smyth 

R.Smyth@QMC (on JANET) 
Computer Centre Queen Mary College 
Mile End Road London El 4NS 

Subject: C compilers for Cross System 

Has anyone heard of a C compiler that runs 
on the Mac that will generate a standard {if 
there is such a standard) Object format 
suitable to be transferee* to a 68000-on-a- 
board computer such as a VME-BUS 
compatible board. Basically I am looking 
for a C compiler and/or an Assembler that 
would output such a file which could then 
be downloaded via the boards monitor into 
the boards memory. Obviously I require 
*NO* Macintosh system support since the 
target machine is *NOT* a Macintosh. If 
such a creature does in fact 

exist, please send me mail 


April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



about it As usual, I will summarize any 
responses I receive. 
Yossie Silverman 

Subject: HyperCard field-check ques- 

How can one make a HyperCard field insist 
on information in a specific form? Specifi- 
cally, suppose one wants a Held only to 
contain a number. After the first entry into 
that field, onecan capture ihecloseField to 
check that the entry was indeed a number 
and then beep and perhaps select the field 
as a response. But, if the user just ignores 
this and goes off to another field, there is 
no way to trap this action since no further 
closcFicld messages will be sent. A 
closeField is only sent if the contents of the 
field are changed. 

As a current solution. I use the first 
closeField to put the user in a repeat with 
an ask box that will not go away until a 
proper number is entered, but this is a bit 

awkward and not very Mac like. 

Any suggestions? 

David A. Belsley, Boston College 

Subject: Simultaneous field scrolling in 
Has anyone figured out how to make two 

fields scroll simultaneously in HyperCard? 
Clearly while the mouse is down on the 
stroll button of one field, no messages are 
passed, even "idle" or "mouse\Viihin. M It 
seems impossible, then, to pass a message 
to another, parallel field to follow along in 
the scroll. It can bedone sequentially. The 
one field scrolls and, once the mouse is up 
and idle messages are passed again, the 
other field can then be made to set its scroll 
equal to that of the first field, but this is 
hardly a very satisfactory solution. Fur- 
thermore, when the second field scrolls, 
any selection made in the first field is lost, 
so it is impossible to select beyond the 
showing part of the field. 

The problem is the lack of a "filter" 
facility while a text field is active. Unless 
I am missing something cute, I don *t see a 
way around lliis and would appreciate 
suggestions. Otherwise, I hope the Atkin- 
son group is listening. 

On a related question, is there any way in 
HyperCard to return the current cursor 
positon so that it can be put back into place 
when a field is closed and reopened? 

It appears that the "toolbox" text field is 

not really suited to HyperCard and that a 
more sophisticated facility is needed. 
David A. Belsley, Boston College 

From: Robert Joseph Ham men 
Subject: Re: Sounds, HFS Backup 
>From: Brodie Lockard <I.ISIMO@ 
ject: Two unrelated questions: 
> W hat arc the steps in con vcrti ng a Sound- 
Cap or SoundWavodocument to a 'snd ' 
resource that can be played as a SysBeep? 
There are a couple of methods that I know 
to do this. There is a shareware program 
called "sound->beep" that lets you con- 
vert the SoundCap/SoundWave file to an 
'snd * type 1 resource. Also, I believe that 
someone has developed an swei resource 
for SoundWave (an extension of the pro- 
gram) to save sound files in the correct 

There is a program similar to "sound- 
>beep" in the Sound Mover Package, 
which 1 just posted to Sumcx-Aim. 1 
saves files in the type 1 or type 2 'snd ' 

Question: docs anyone know of a program 
that can convert between the two 'snd ' 
resource formats? Does anyone know of a 
program that can convert from either 'snd 
' format back to SoundCap/SoundWave? 
>From: Paul Skucc <mcvax!hatfield.!comips@uunel.UU.NET> >Sub* 
ject: Re:HDBackup 

>I now use PCPB IIFS backup. VI. 1. I 
have v2 but it only works on die drives >it 
came with. I believe you can get a version 
that works on all drives. 
Don't use versions of HFS Backup <2.0 if 
you want a reliable backup of your files. 
Version 1 .0 hada particularly nasty bug in 
that it didn't back up all of the files on a 
volume, as a local BBS sysop discovered 
when his BBS crashed and the file section 
directories weren't restored. Version 1.1 
seemed to back up all files, but it had some 
other problems, particularly with the 
BackupDirs (if memory serves me cor- 
Robert Hainrnen 

From: Alan Takahashi 
Subject: Who is IBM? 
Thought this might be of some interest... 
>From PC Week (Jan 5, 1988): 
"IBM? Who Are They?" 
"Datapro Research Corp., a com- 
puter-analysis firm based in Dclran. N.J.. 

last week announced its list of top PC 
hardware and software products for 

"Apple Computer grabbed top hon- 
ors in both categories. The Mac II and 
HyperCard were voted the most significant 
hardware and software products, respec- 

"IBM's PS/2 machines and OS/2 
operating system weren't mentioned." 
Alan Takahashi 

From:Nigcl Perry 
Subject: HyperTalk Questions + Laser- 
writer Question 

Could somebody please help me with the 
following problems/questions? 
HyperTalk ===== 

1) Is there a "proper" way to catch key- 
strokes? There doesn't seem to be a mes- 
sage for them - HyperCard always seems 
to grab them and use them in die message 
box or a field. I have got around the prob- 
lem by installing an "idle" handler which 

grabs characters from die message box 

and sends them as keyDown messages - 
but it is slow and typing too fast loses 
characters... (If you wondering... my 
current application is a "Speak & Spell" 
card as part of a MacinTalk interface 
stack. I would also like to have "menus" 
were you can select by pressing a key 
iastead of a button.) 

2) Is there a way to change AND keep 
changed die cursor while in Browse 
mode? E.g. I would like the cursor to 
change when over a button/field, catch- 
ing mouseEnter/mouseExitand using "set 
cursor" doesn't work as once ihc handler 
has completed the Browse cursor is re- 
stored. Any ideas? 

I .ascrwritcr - • 

Can somebody send me, or tell me where 
to find, the format of a FONT/FOND and 
LaserWriter font file for a downloadable 
font. In other words I have a screen bitmap 
font & a postscript font description for it. 
all I need is how to package mem up so dial 
the LaserWriter driver will download and 
use the postscript 
Thanks in advance for your help. 
Nigel Perry Department of Computing 
Imperial College London England 

From: Eric K.Olson 

Subject: Re: Mac II Color Graphics 


Unfortunately , there are many formats for 

color and/or grayscale information gener- 


Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


atcdon a Mac II: 

The most general way to move PICT 
2 (Mac II PICT) data is via the clipboard. 
This allows any program that opens multi- 
bit windows to pass color pictures in and 
out of itself. It doesn't require any special 
file type, so it is supported most easily. 

A PICT file contains the same infor- 
mation as a clipboard PICT, but stored in 
the data fork of a file. Pixelpaint supports 
this forma L Some older Mac software 
(MacDraw) can also generate this type of 
file, but not in color. 

A GrayView file contains the same 
information as a PICT file and a clipboard 
PICT, but stored in a PICT #0 resource in 
the resource fork of the file. This is the 
format of a Mac IIStartUpScreen,aswell 
as a DeskPicture for use with the DcskPict 
INIT. If the file coniains an original Mac- 
screen size bitmap (uncompressed) in the 
data fork, that bitmap will be used as the 
StartUpScreen on a non-Mac-II. 

The drawback of all the PICT for- 
mats is that they cannot be generated eas- 
ily on a non-Mac-n, and if PICT 2 data is 
displayed on a non-Mac-II, it will be dis- 
played as black & whi tc, with white being 
> 50% luminance (the same display you 
would get if you displayed them on a Mac 
II set to 2 color mode). For this reason, 
there are formats which can hold grayscale 
information useable by non-Mac-II's, 

TIFF is a "standard" scanner fonnat, 
which can hold either a huge bitmap con- 
taining 100% black and 100% white pixels 
(data from scanners is usually in this for- 
mat — but sometimes in greyscale), or a 
grayscale picture, a PixMap (mulu-bit- 
per-pixel BitMap) containing pixels vary- 
ing in intensity (usually 16 or 256 gray 
levels per pixel). It can also represent 
color information, but without a lookup 
table (gray data doesn't need a lookup 
table as much), usually 2 hits each for red, 
green, and blue. TIFF is an extensible 
format, so software written a while ago 
sometimes cannot deal with newer TIFF 
file (for instance, grayscale TIFF is newer 
than scanner TIFF). 

ThunderScan GrayMap format can 
represent up to 64 gray levels per pixel. I 
find it useful for backwards compatibility. 
ImageStudio can read this format. Tliun- 
derscan can include a grayscale map (pixel 
value to intensity lookup table, also called 

a transfer function). 

RIFF (Raster Image File Format) is 
the native fonnat for ImageStudio. It can 
store grayscale information up to 256 
grays per pixel, and can store color infor- 
mation with a color lookup table (al though 
I know of nothing that will read a color 
RIFF file). 

Since ThunderScan and ImageStu- 
dio both run on Non-Mac-II's, GrayMap 
and RIFF files are somewhat more univer- 
sal than anything using a PICT format. 
TIFF is quite universal (even when mov- 
ing to IBM-PC's, although byte-ordering 
may become a problem if the importing 
application isn't careful), but can contain 
so many different kinds of information 
you never quite know what you'll get. 
Hope this helps. 

From: TONYN 
Subject: MultiFinder and RamStart 
MultiFinder and RamStart 
Working on my RamStart program in the 
last couple of days, I have ferreted out a 
few secrets of MultiFinder. 
MultiFinder is an operating system exten- 
sion that adds capability to the Macintosh 
OS and Toolbox. In no sense docs it 
replace die Finder; it only allows the 
Finder to do new tricks. 
The file MuluFinder is an application that 
installs the extensions. This means that 
RamStart can launch MultiFinder as its 
exit application, by using a script file, and 
thatTMON can be used with MultiFinder 
if it is launched first. 
Apple describes this technique in the 
document, "Are You MultiFinder 
Friendly?" (but I find that the Finder 
crashes every time I exit TMON, and it 
seems odd that a couple of seconds after I 
option-interrupt into TMON that the cur- 
sor changes to the Watch). 
_Launch is one trap that behaves differ- 
ently under MultiFinder. RamStart nor- 
mally gets the space for the RAM disk by 
adjusting BufPtr (the way debuggers and 
the HD 20 file do), but it will have to work 
differently to run under MultiFinder. 
BufPtr affects InitApplZone, which is no 
longer called during Launch (I infer) be- 
cause the real AppIZone, the one just 
above the System heap, is now the Multi- 
Finder heap. 

When MuluFinder launches an applica- 
tion, it creates a new sub-heap for it in a 

locked handle al the top of its own heap 
(using _MoveHHi?). 
The Temporary Memory Allocation calls 
also allocate handles in the MultiFinder 
heap. They are simple wrappers around 
the usual Memory Mgr calls that set the 
MultiFinder A5 world (except keeping the 
current QD vars) and the MultiFinder heap 
zone and then call glue code. Either 
MuluFinder is written in C using a very 
c lever compiler, or in assembler by a very 
dull programmer. 

Since the temp mem calls are so simple, 
you may allocate memory that lasts until 
MuluFinder quits. This is good for Ram- 

On the other hand, you must be careful to 
dispose of any temp memory you get, as 
MultiFinder will not, even when your 
application quits. As Apple has not docu- 
mented this behavior, they may change it 
in the future. It would be a disaster for 
RamStart if the calls start tagging the 
blocks witli the originating application, 
but they might someday. 
The MultiFinder temp mem calls are ac- 
cessed by a selector passed to the new trap 
OSDispatch (A88F). The dispatch table 
holds 40 entries, and I am curious to know 
what the other entries are for. 
Tony N.: 

Subject: RE: MultiFinder and RamStart 
I've been using TMON with MultiFinder 
all along. Don't tell mc you don't have the 
INIT loader for TMON? If not, get it! 

Info-Mac digests consist of submissions 
by individuals on the academic computer 
networks. Submission and distribution of 
these digests is by network, moderated by 
volunteers at Stanford University. 

Usenet is a loosely-coupled network of 
co-opcraung academic and commercial 
computer systems. It is a non-profit net- 
work whose primary aim is the sharing of 
technical information and thespreading of 
research results. 

Delphi is a commercial time-sharing and 
bulletin board system. The Delphi Digests 
arc made available thanks to Jeffrey 
Shulman of Rutgers University. 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



Draw it again Sam... 


The demo version of 
Draw it again Sam...™ 
can be found on the 
MacLibrary Disk 904 
Update 4. 

□ Draw itagain Sam... isapowcrful 
object-oriented drawing program 
that provides several unique ca- 
pabilities. Some of the special features of 
this program are: 

• Libraries 

• Layers 

■ Drawing Modes 

• Colour 

Libraries allow you to place complex 
drawing elements into a palette at the 
bottom of the screen. By selecting an icon 
representing a drawing clement, the pic- 
ture belonging to thai icon can be placed 
into any open drawing. Groups of pictures 
in a library can be saved in library files. 
This does away with the difficulty of cut- 
ting and pasting pieces from other draw- 
ings through the clipboard and scrapbook. 

Ten drawing layers allow you to control 
overlapping parts of a drawing independ- 
ently. The layers work much like the clear 
acetate overlays used by commercial art- 
ists. Each layer can be saved, viewed, and 
pnntcd separately or together with other 
layers you specify. 

The four drawing modes, Opaque, 
Clear, Invert, and Erase, allow objects and 
patterns to interact in new and interesting 
ways resulting in stunning visual effects. 

The eight-colour capability provided by 
die program allows you to work in colour 
on all currently sold Macintosh™ models 
from the512Keup. On the Macintosh II™ 
with a colour screen colours are visible on 
screen. With monochrome systems, col- 
our can be printed on suitable printers. 

The Draw it again Sam... screen has 
four basic areas: The Menu Bar. The 
Window, The Tool Pallet, and The Library 

Certain keys affect how die arrow 
pointer works, modifying it*s behaviour if 
the key is held down while die arrow is 
used. The shift key acts to include or re- 
move an object from the objects already 
selected. Previously selected objects are 

left selected, and the object clicked on is 
added to the set of selected objects or 
removed from the set depending on its 
initial state. The option key allows an ob- 
ject underneath another object to be se- 
lected. When held down, clicking on an 
object docs not select that object Instead, 
a marquee can be pulled by the mouse, 
which selects only those objects mat fall 
completely within it. The marquee must 
surround all handles belonging to the ob- 
ject. The option key can also be used to 
change a selected object to a di f fcrcnt type 
by clicking on a different tool whilcthcop- 
lion key is held down. This is useful for 
deconstraining objects: a circle can be 
made into an ellipse, for example. 

The command key causes re-sizing and 
dragging operations to occur only on one 
axis. As me mouse first moves, one axis, 
either horizontal or vertical, is moved 
along more than the other. 'I"hc object is 
forced to move only along the axis in 
which the mouse first moved. 

Arrow keys on the keyboard nudge se- 
lected objects one pixel in die direction 
that the arrow points each time they are 

There are the following tools:- rec- 
tangle tool, square tool, rounded rectangle 
tool, rounded square, ellipse, circle, line, 
constrained line, parallel lines, polygon, 
free form, registration mark, arc and text. 

File commands perform the usual func- 
tions, such as opening and closing docu- 
ments. Three additional special com- 
mands are available:- Save Layer As..., 
Change Pad Size, and Setup Rulers. 

This document contains brief documen- 
tation of die program. The demo version 
of the program available on MacLibrary 
Disk 904 Update4isonlyforreview. Sev- 
eral of the features, such as saving draw- 
ings and creating new libraries, have been 
disabled. More information can be sought 
from Aba Software Inc., 2 Davis m 
Ave, Frazcr Pa 19355-0915. ™ 


Applo2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


The Graph Stack 

The Graph stack has 
buttons for bar graph, 
line graph and pie 
charts. It is available on 
MacLibrary Disk 280, 
HyperStacks 20. 

□ Whcn you 
first open 
the graph 
stack, the card thai 
appears is usually the 
bar chart. This com- 
prises the chart itself, 
the data in a block 
down the riglu hand 

side, and five but- 
tons. The buttons 
will lei you display 
your data in the form 
of a bar graph, line 
graph or pie chart. 
The 'Print' button 

will print the card, 
and ihe 'Sales* but- 
ton will generate a 
new set of random 

There is nothing in 
the stack to identify 
its origin, but it cer- 
tainly gives useful 
examples of scripts 
to produce graphs. 
One point of interest 
is that when I spent a 
while trying to make 
the stack crash, the 
only peculiar result I 
achieved concerned 
the use of zero value 
data in the pie chart. 
While the bar chart 
and the line chart 
seem able to tolerate 
zeros in the data, the 
pie chart appears to 
bleed to death when 
it encounters a zero. 
However, this 
docs not alter the fact that it is very useful 
to be able to give some other slacks the 
ability to show and print graphs. I ap- 
pended this stack to two other stacks and 

then amended the background screen to 
remove the reference to New Product 
Sales and amended die script to mat 
collect the relevant data. 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



^ac Lib* 

There arc fifteen new Macintosh 
Library disks this month. Disks 
904 and 905 are both temporary 
Update Disks as described in the 
previous MacLibrary column. 
There are three new demonstra- 
tion disks of the major applica- 
tions FullWrite Professional and 
Reflex®Plus. The HyperCard 
Stacks keep coming thick and fast 
and there are ten new disks of 

Disk 904 Update 4 

Update 4 contains 10 items on 
the desktop:- Giffer. DIAS, Hierar- 
chical Menu Demo, Modula 2 
Make. QuickStart. Teleporl 4.1, 
RJSK. MulUFinder Keys. PK font 
converter. Draw DA. 
DIAS is short for Draw it again 
Sam™ and this is a demo version 
of the program. Some of the fea- 
tures of the program are Librar- 
ies, Layers, Drawing Modes. Col- 

Draw DA is a desk accessory that 
supports object oriented drawing. 
The documentation gives a full list 
of its features. 

Modula 2 Make is a small utility 
to be used with MacMETH Mod- 
ula 2. 

PK Font Converter is a TeX to 
Macintosh font converter. It takes 
as input a PK font file, and pro- 
duces as output an RMaker 
source file for the corresponding 
Macintosh font. It should work in 
other UNIX-like environments. 
such as the MPW shell. 
guickStart - By setting Quick- 
Start as Startup, you can execute 
a Qu icKeys sequence without first 
arriving in the Finder. 
Telcport 4.1 is an application 
launcher that is compatible with 

Disk 905 Update 5 

Update 5 contains 20 items on 
the desktop:- News Reader 1.8.6. 
Artisto. QuickerGraf. Time- 
Keeper. Password. RingWarp 
demo. MacFormula. Preview 1.5. 
Hearts. Application Menu. New 
MClock. MinlWriter 1.4. Menu- 
Time. RamDisk+. uPaint DA. Ball 
& Stick. Crystal Quest Sample. 
Timed launch. Elapse. 

Gunshot, snd. 
Artisto 1.41 is a desk accessory 

of the "Paint Cutter" variety. Ar- 
tisto allows you to open up a 
MacPaint document from inside 
any program that supports desk 
accessories and select any por- 
tion of the image and copy it to the 
clipboard. From the clipboard, 
the graphic can be pasted into an 
application. You must have a 
512K (or larger) Mac in order to 
use this desk accessory. It now 
works with FullPaint. 
Hearts plays three hands of the 
card game hearts and lets the 
Macintosh user play the fourth 
hand. Plays the "Black Lady" vari- 
ant of hearts where the Queen of 
Spades counts 13 points. Devel- 
oped by Tom Hedges and Mark 

MacFormula is a tool for chem- 
ists: particularly for graduate 
students who are conducting re- 
search in the lab and find it nec- 
cessary to compute molecular 
weights frequently. 
MenuTime isjust another digital 
clock on the menu bar. This is a 
slightly revised version of Menu- 
Time to move the clock out of the 
way of MultiFinder's small icon. 
New MClock is the functional 
equivalent to JClock. but with 
some extra bells and whistles, 
and it looks better under Multi- 

Password - This utility is to stop 
other people booting up your Mac 
from its Hard Disk (or any System 
Disk you put this on); it will not 
stop people from inserting an- 
other system disk into your Mac 
and using that to boot it. 
Preview 1.5 Is a replacement 
printer driver which allows 
printed output to be viewed on the 
screen in miniature. 
RamDisk+ is an internal RAM 
disk for the Macintosh Plus. 


FullWrite Demo 

Disk 103 Demo 13 

This disk is the program disk for 
the FullWrite Professional Dem- 
onstration. It must be used in 
con|unction with the following 
disk which is Disk 104 Demo 14. 
as this disk contains the files 
which complete the demo. 


i i'v 

FullWrite Help Glossary 

v *J 

TUtorUI Simple Doe 

p a 

Samp1# DocumStjtiGnery Folder 

Disk 104 Demo 14 

This is not a stand-alone disk but 
must be used in conjunction with 
the previous disk, number 103. 

Disk 105 Demo 15 

This Is a demonstration disk for 
Reflex® Plus. The Database Man- 

Disk 276 HyperStacks 16 

Disk 276 (8 items on desktop) 
Atlas 1.1. California 1.1. Amanda 
Stories folder containing Inigo 

Atlas 1.1 California 1.1 

Cartoon Cat V/alkinq 

ArnandaStor ies Timelog 

Whole Earth Your System 

Takes a Bath and Your Faithful 
Camel. The Whole Earth Catalog 
Stack. Cartoon. Cat Walking. 
Timelog. Your System I.0D1. 
Atlas 1,1 is a stack containing 
different views of the globe which 
can be flipped through at speed so 
that it appears like a rotating 
Earth. It can also home In on 
California and utilises the Califor- 
nia 1.1 stack to do this. Califor- 
nia i.i can be used alone and 
shows how maps can be flipped 
through so that it appears that 
one is zooming in on a certain area 
of the globe. 

The Amanda Stories Folder 
contains another delightful picto- 
rial story of Inigo the cat called 
Inigo Takes a Bath, a follow up to 
Inigo Takes a Walk. Your Faithful 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Camel is another pictorial story, 
also by Amanda Goodenough. 
Cartoon is a very short animated 

Cat Walking Is another animated 
sequence, looped to continue 
until the mouse is clicked. 
Tlmclog gives a card set out to 
enable the user to log the time 
spent on a task in any day. Once 
the times of starting and stopping 
work are entered the calculation 
is done for you. 

The Whole Earth Catalog stack 
is a HyperCard version of the 
Whole Earth Catalog messages 
from the Well. To the UK user it is 
probably more useful as a demo of 
text importing faculties in Hyper- 

Your System 1.0D1 has only one 
card which is able to tell you the 
following facts about the setup it 
is running on:- Machine type, 
system version, processor. Has 
FPU?, Has Colour QD?, keyboard 
type, AppleTalk version and lastly 


Disk 277 HyperStacks 17 


Bloom County Bogie 

BBSs tree key 

The Eyes Have It US Map 

ClassNotes TicTacTo* 

Time Stackfhe Record Stack 

the message box. Could be ex- 
tended for many uses. 
BBS's gives a very long list of 
numbers of Bulletin Boards in the 
USA together with addresses and 
the type of information found on 
the board. 

Bogle is another sound stack, the 
card gives a choice of three 
phrases to be spoken by Bogie. 
Class Notes shows a way of using 
HyperCard as an electronic pro- 
spectus, so that students can 
browse their way through cards 
giving details of courses. 
The Eyes Have It - not easy to 
describe this stack, but the eyes 

definitely have it. 
The Record Stack by Larry Halff. 
This stack can be used to catalog 
a music collection. It allows for 
data to be entered and sorted, 
including a play list. It is hoped 
that future Improvements will 
Include a way to be able to attach 
a bit of music to songs in a play 
list, so that when they are clicked 
on the music will be played. 
TlcTacToe - a HyperCard version 
of the game. 

Time Stack gives a rather nice 
analogue clock with moving sec- 
ond hand and date. 
Tree Key helps you Identify the 
type of tree by answering ques- 
tions about the leaf. This stack 
could be extended to become a 
useful identification tool. 
US Map - clicking on a State 
brings up a card about the State. 
Traffic Stack - this is a Science 
Fiction stack set in the year 4096. 
The artwork is very good but the 
story Is as yet incomplete. 

Disk 278 HyperStacks 18 

Traffic Stack(SF Game) 

Disk 277 (1 1 items on the desk- 
top) Bloom County. Bogie, BBS's. 
Tree key. Class Notes. Traffic 
StacktSF Game) Time Stack. US 
Map. The Eyes Have It. TlcTacToe. 
The Record Stack. 
Bloom County is a stack which is 
more interesting than it appears 
at first sight. Clicking on various 
areas of a picture will produce 
sounds:- a musical phrase, a 
spoken word or a word spelled out 
and at the same time printed in 

corners of borders, arrows, bells. 
US Presidents, flowers, floral 
designs, womens faces, mens 
heads, astronauts, cartoon fig- 
ures, children, sport figures, wit- 
ches. Christmas figures, owls, 
chicks, turkeys, monkeys. Easter 
bunnies, decorative labels, pot- 

Disk 279 HyperStacks 19 

Clip Art 

Disk 278 (1 item on desktop) 
Contains only one stack entitled 
Clip Art. 

The Clip Art Stack contains over 
five hundred cards, each card 
holding one item of clip art. The 
subjects include the following: - 
fishes, crabs, butterflies, spiders, 
insects, frogs, tortoises, dogs, 
horses, dinosaurs, trees, 
watches, clocks, keys, nails, 
saws, tools, knives, shoes, lamps, 
scissors, lamps, birds, musical 
instruments, cars, carriages, 
crockery, coffee makers, cups, 
vegetables, pipes, eyes, pointing 
hands, borders, corners, stars, 
suns, moons, corner symbols. 

CheapSequericer Combo 

No Peeking H cmdoptiontrap 

Cool buttons Cursor stuff 

Stk Appender Datebook 
Shift Vind Script Reader 1 .1 

Concentration 2.2 

Disk 279 (11 items on the desk- 
top) Cheap Sequencer, No Peeking 
and CmdOptionTrap, Combo. 
Cool Buttons. Cursor Stuff. Date- 
book. Concentration 2.2, Stack 
Appender, Shift Window, Script 
Reader 1.1. 

Cheap Sequencer stack is a per- 
sonal sampled sound sequencer 
created and produced by Chuck 
Walker. It enables you to add a 
sound by using the SoundCap- 
Mover stack to create and install 
SND resources, or use ResEdit to 
move an existing sound to this 
stack. It then enables you to make 
a sequence etc. 

No Peeking! and CmdOption trap 
appear to both be about the same 
thing:- how to stop other people 
looking at the script of your but- 

Combo - on the first card is a self- 
replicating button called Combi- 
nation. When clicked it will create 
another card, in this stack or in a 
new stack, or in a previously cre- 
ated stack. After making the card, 
a button will be created that links 
to the newly created card. Then it 
makes a copy of itself on the newly 
created card, and returns with 
the tool in the browse position. 
Concentration is a stack con- 

April 198S 

Appie2000 - For all Apple Users 


Mae Uferary 

taining a two player or one player 
card game. 

Cool Buttons gives seven buttons 
which draw different figures of 
shapes and lines when they are 
clicked. Cursor stuff identifies the 
cursors available. 
Datebook is a calendar which will 
give 1988 but annoyingly opens at 
the last part of 1987. Get modify- 

Script Reader 1.1 gets the 
scripts of all the objects of a des- 
ignated stack and puts them into 
cards in the Script Reader. 
Shift Window is a utility for 
MultiFinder users. It contains 
scripts which move the card win- 
dow to the bottom of the Mac 
screen so that you can see the 

Stack Appender does exactly 
that. It appends Stack A to the end 
of Stack B. 

Disk 280 HyperStacks 20 

Defect Selector Deprotect 

Dialog Demo 2.1 Ha Ha Ha 

Ed's HyperWriter File Index 

Nev.Home 0ff-Line*3 stack 

Font tester Graph Stack 

EarthStak Hidden Scripts 

Bisk 280 (12 items on the desk- 
top) Defect Selector, Deprotect. 
Dialog Demo 2.1, Ha Ha Ha, 
EarthStak, Ed's HyperWriter, File 
Index. Font Tester, Graph Stack, 
Hidden Scripts. New.Home. Off- 
Llne»3 stack. 

Defect Selector stack can be 
used to 'gather up* Defect Reports 
from the Bug Base stack accord- 
ing to criteria you select by typing 
into the search fields. 

Deprotect Stack has a button 
which will prompt for the name of 
a stack and then, if possible, 
remove any password for that 
stack and set the maximum ac- 
cess level back to Scripting. 
Dialog Demo 2.1 - this stack was 
developed by Apple Inc. to show 
how HyperCard could be used as a 
front-end to an on-line service 
such as DIALOG. It shows the 
possibilities of using HyperCard 
as a telecommunications front- 

Earth Stak is another revolving 
earth animated sequence of 

Ed's HyperWriter Is a simple text 
editor for HyperCard. 
File Index Is exactly what it says 
it is. 

Font Tester lets you determine if 
your system contains all of the 
fonts and font sizes used by the 
Wildcard Stacks. 
Graph Stack demonstrates draw- 
ing line graphs, bar charts and pie 

Ha Ha Ha - you need a sense of 
humour for this. 
Hidden Scripts gives tips for find- 
ing other people's scripts. 
New.Home is a HyperCard Stack- 
ware Development Appl ication 

with a HyperCard Editor and Text 


Off-Linc # 3 stack gives access to 

text files of comments and items 

of interest to Mac owners. 

Disk 281 HyperStacks 21 

HyperCd Title Home Desk 

info^Key Docsne Desk Docs 

Hyperbase Hyperbases 

RelatiViti Sound AdYioe™ 

MacVendor M-aeY Directory 

Disk 281 (10 items on the desk- 
top) HyperCard Title Loop, Home 
Desk, Home Desk docs, Hyper- 
base, Hyperbases. Sound Ad- 
vice™ , Iiifo»Key Docs. 
Relativity 3 (comix) . M acVendors . 
MacVendors Directory. 
HyperCard Title Loop - this 
stack puts up a looped sequence 
of cards detailing the major fea- 
tures of HyperCard. 
HomeDesk - a rather novel type of 
Home Card, with a document. 
Hyperbase gives the user a quick 
and easy way to switch from 
HyperCard to other applications. 
Sound Advice™ is a way to Im- 
port SND resources Into your own 
stacks and can also act as a kind 
of sound library. 
Info «Key Docs stack gives infor- 
mation such as the current date 
and time, mounted volumes and 
info about them. RAM info - 
number of bytes free. System 
version and Current Application. 
Relativlty3(comlx) -a graphical 
adventure consisting of cards. 
Mac Vendors and MacVendors 
Directory - The MacVendors 
stack gives you a quick and easy 
way to locate the vendors of the 
major Macintosh applications 
and hardware. 

Disk 282 HyperStacks 22 

MPW2.0D*moHyperUunch f 

Icons f 

Icon Mover f 

HyperTele Hy perStars 

Import Butti MemoryMaster™ 

Maze 1 .0A9 Maze 1.0 A8 


Star Trek 

Texas f 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

Disk 282 (11 items on the desk- 
top) MPW 2.0 Demo, Hyper- 
Launch folder, MacWrite docu- 
ment entitled HyperTelecomm. 
Icons folder. Icon Mover folder. 
Memory Master™ . HyperStars. 
Maze 1.0A8 and Maze 1.0A9. 
Import Button Stack. Star-Trek- 


April 1988 



MPW 2.0 Demo - this stack gives 
an insight Into the workings of the 
Macintosh Programmer's Work - 

HypcrLaunch v 1.5 enables you 
to launch other applications from 
within HyperCard. Has an 'Add' 
button which makes a text only 
button with the name you give it. 
You can then add an icon and 
move it around freely. It also helps 
with finding the correct paths. 
Has help and docs. 
Maze 1.0A8 and Maze 1.0A9 - 
this stack needs an awful lot of 
pa Lie nee - 

Memory Master by David Leffler. 
This HyperCard stack helps you 
to memorize a poem, speech, or 
any text in a simple manner. 
HyperStars is a stack which can 
act as a screen saver. 
Import Button Stack does just 

Hyper Tclccomm Mac Write 
document - describes a project 
currently underway to expand 
HyperCard's telccommunicat Ion 
facilities. The goal of the project is 
to produce a developer toolkit, not 
a finished application. 
Icon Mover folder which contains 
Icon Mover 1.1 which is an FKey 
which will convert up to twenty 
ICN#'s from one application to 
ICON resources in a second appli- 
cation. It was created for use with 
Icons folder. 

Star Trek-TNG - an amusing 
stack giving details of the crew 
members of the latest Starship 

TEXAS is a HyperCard stack 
which lets you browse through 
multi-megabyte collections of 
free-text information. TEXAS 
includes facilities for building and 
sorting a complete inverted index 
to every word in a 'dataspace' text 

Disk 283 HyperStacks 23 

Illusions Import Paint 0.3 

Lunar Mac Tips 

Hy perSleep Memos 

Tech Tour RRH EESs 

Disk 283 Illusions. Import Paint 
0.3. Hyper Sleep, Lunar, Mac Tips 
folder. Memos. Tech Tour. The 
List of RRH BBSs. 
Illusions gives a series of cards 
showing optical illusions. 
HyperSleep gives a screen saver 
for those who use HyperCard's 
Home Stack as their main desk- 
top screen. 

Import Paint has a 'Copy Picture' 
button which can be customized 
to copy any part of a MacPaint 
document and to paste it any- 
where on a card. 
Mac Tips from MacMania con- 
tains a stack giving tips on the use 
of the major Mac applications. 
HFS and the Finder. 
Lunar is an Implementation 
within HyperCard of the classic 
Lunar Lander game. 
Memos provides a quick way of 
making a stack of memo cards 
with graphics if you wish. 
Tech Tour gives a technical tour 
of the Macintosh SE. 
The List of RRH BBSs a list of 
Red Ryder Host Bulletin Boards 
updated as for September 1987. 

Disk 284 HyperStacks 24 

TN Zone Index TN Zone 

Disk 284 Tech-Note Zone by 

Reggie Seagraves. 
Tech-Note Zone contains all the 
Macintosh Technical Notes to 162 
in the form of a HyperCard Stack. 
Technical Notes may be printed 
etc. There is also a Technical 
Notes Index Stack to guide you to 
the note which would be of most 
help to you. Clicking on the title of 
the Note you want in the Index will 
transfer you to the Tech Note Zone 
Stack and directly to the correct 
Technical note whose title you 

Disk 285 HyperStacks 25 

Disk 285 contains two stacks. 
Music Cards and the NASA Vide- 
odisc stack. The NASA Videodisc 
Stack was intended to control the 
NASA videodisc. It has some good 
NASA graph ics and gives an excit- 
ing glimpse into what the vide- 
odisc might contain. Unfortu- 
nately wc do not supply the vide- 
odisc with this stack! 
Music Cards provides a way of 
organizing information about 
composers and their works, etc. 
All the HyperStacks disks listed 
above need HyperCard. 



•■■!.i. I ■ii..j«,- hnnjc you ihc upporiunily |g luve . in^v: 

floppy ihjn anyone *!*«. \ full 10MB of cru»hpioof .l»u und 

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Infinite Storage 
£3 a megabyte. 

prontac engineers have weavexl a 

spell over technology to achieve a 

system which is faster than many fixed 

SCSI disks, yet with the securicy, 

convenience and really low expansion 

cost you can only get from a 

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Accountants, publishers, students. 


ProDrive 10 is the disk for everyone. 

Stocked by MacKurope Dealers. If yours 

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dealer, please call us 

literature and solid advice 

From MacEuropc. Of course. 

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Tel: (0603) 630636 

Fax; 0603 630374 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



The Clip Art Stack 

Pictures from The Clip Art Stack 

on the MacLihrary Disk 278 

HyperStacks 18. A very impressive 

collection of clip art with over 500 

items in one stack. 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


Findswell for HFS 

Richard Wilday goes in search of his 


□ When Apple introduced dieir im- 
proved filing system HFS it 
solved a lot of problems but also 
brought wi th it some others.There seemed 
no end to the number of folders you could 
put within folders. An article in the last 
copy of 'Mackintosh Horizons' stated that 
Michael Wailsman of Chicago's The Rest 
of lis achieved 132 deep nested folders 
and then he quit out of sheer boredom. By 
the way, 132 nested folders didn't add a 
solitary byte or K. WiLh this large amount 
of folders it's not surprising that you start 
losing things. This is where programs like 
'Findswell' (from the people that gave you 
'Spellsweir) become invaluable. 
Findswell works as an 'INIT, in other 
words you place it in the system folder and 
it installs itself automatically when you 
start the Macintosh. 

Findswell™ 1.0b 

M 3 items 

372K in disk 




system FoWtr 

Program Launcher Findswell 1 




There is no apparent difference to the 
display until you choose OPEN from the 
file menu. You are then presented with an 
extra button in the dialog box marked 
'Findswell*. Clicking on this or pressing 
Command-F will activate a new dialog 
box. This allows you to search for an item 
either by Any Part, First Part or Full Name. 
With the first twooptions the more charac- 
ters you can type, the more specific 'Find- 
swell' will be in locating the item. 'Find- 
swell' will then list all the programs. Files 
or folders that fulfill the criteria you have 

A useful feature is the window at the 
top of the box which displays the informa- 
tion usually found in 'Get info' together 
with a tree map of the highlighted item. 
The small box to the left of the documents 
name may be 'clicked' to allow the most 
frequently used documents to he dis- 
played automatically each lime 'Find- 
swell' is used. 

Although its primary benefits must be 
to those with a hard disk it will find a 
document from a collection of assorted 
disks, if you are prepared to search each 
one. To use 'Findswell' from the Desktop 
an additional program is supplied 'Find- 
swell Launch Program', from which 
'Findswell* will find and run programs. 


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To sum-up there are quite a few of this 
type of program about, some of them are 
even public domain. Apple supply a simi- 
laroneasa DA called 'Find File* with their 
new system, but it will not allow you to 
open a document from within its self, 
where 'Findswell* will. It hasn't the extra 
bells and whistles of a program like "Disk 
Top', but I haven't found one to work as 
fast and as efficiently as 'Findsweir with- 
out bombing once. I shall be very reluctant 
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Frustrated trailing through a maze of Folders? 

And having io use Find Flic again (and again) to 

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You need Findswell to Locate, then Open 

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April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

The Granary, Trowse Bridge. 

Bracondale, Norwich NR1 2EG. England. 

Tel: (0603) 630636 

Fax; 0603 630374 



Comic Strip Factory 

Some members get all the nice jobs ! 
Michael Maloney and Mary Guillaume inspect this program. 

□ The Comic Strip Factory v 1.5 
with Comic People (hereinafter 
CSF) arrives on no fewer lhan 5 
discs. The fact that these arc single-sided 
discs immediately gives away the truth of 
the matter. Here is a new, well to these 
shores at least, program that will still run 
on the old 512K machine. (I hope that you 
1 28K owners have stopped asking by now, 
after all even the 5 12K itself has been dis- 
continued for almost 6 months ) At the 

other end of the scale CSF bombed 
promptly under System 4.1 on a Macin- 
tosh II however it did function normally 
under multifinder. But, from here on in, 
we're running on the trusty 512K where 
the program behaved well. 

I don' l suppose that it is too difficult 
for you to guess what a CSF program does. 
You're right, CSF is a program for creat- 
ing and assembling fully-fledged comic 
strips. And assembling is the right word, 
because the programs themselves (along 
with the System, Finder and Imagewriter 
Buffer) are all contained on 1 of the 5 

floppies. The other 4 contain a large selec- 
tion of CSF Tarts Files' • ic bodies (gruc- 
somely dismembered!) and the back- 
grounds to put them in. This concept has to 
be the strongest selling point of the pack- 
age, and the one which the manual cover 
proclaims loudly (this is an American 
program after all). You don't need to be 
able to draw to be able to produce comic 
strips with this program. And that has to be 
a great relief to 99% of us - after all don't 
you find it embarassing to have me 
world's most perfectly developed graphic 
micro computer on your desk and yet still 
not be able to draw? 

But hold on, we're getting ahead of 
ourselves, didn't it just say programs a few 
lines ago? Well yes; die CSF itself is 
naturally enough the main program, it acts 
as the final assembly point for all of the 
elements of your comic strip. The other 
application on the program disc though is 
Part Maker II, a compact 12K program 
which can convert Clip Art files 
(MacPaint format Clip Art files that is) 


[ Cut J [ Copy Paste 

"■r ^^^ 

^<$ mm^^b^ 



Beoch Emph 




Bold Outline 

f Sfit Fnnt 1 f Itnlir If Shrtrinin 

The Balloon Editor - for editing Balloons ! 

into still more CSF Parts files. The draw- 
ing skill quotient just keeps Falling. 

So, how does it all work? Well, sur- 
prisingly well. Theconcept is, considering 
the end result, surprisingly simple. Select- 
ing 'New' or 'Open* from 'File* allows 
you to open up to 4 document types, sev- 
eral of which can appear on screen to- 
gether although, of course, at any one time 
only 1 has an active window. 

The first is a Comic Strip layouL The 
page onto which the comic is assembled. 
This defaults to an 8 panel page layout, ie 
2 columns of 4 rows, but this can be 
adjusted to an almost infinite extent. Pan- 
els can have wide screen grandeur or they 
can be packed like sardines. They can be 
smooth and regular or rough and jagged. 
They can merge or overlap - whatever in 
fact your story requires. 

The second is a Parts window. Parts 
documents consist of pictures of objects 
and Lhe characters to use them - the props 
and actors of your comic strip. CSF allows 
you to import Parts files into the panels of 
your layout by a simple 'Copy to Panel' 
command. Parts files are always in 
MacPaint format, CSF works entirely in 
bit-map mode. There isn't even a Laser- 
writer Driver supplied on the System/ 
Program disc. It is prc-drawn Parts files 
that fill mostofthe4 other discs of this seL 
The props and character parts (heads, 
hands and feet etc) drawn by Trici Vcnola 
(of Mac die Knife fame) are quite excel- 
lent and can be used as the basis for many 
inventive strips. At least there are many 
inventive strips in the manual. 

The third window labelled Text con- 
tains the comic strip's script. Text can be 
imported from a prepared text file - use 
'Save As.. ..Text Only' in Mac Write -and 
copied and pasted into the CSF as and 
when needed. Alternatively text may be 
created directly in the program itself. 
Naturally textinacomic must be placed in 
speech balloons and the Balloon Editor 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


itself lets you create and add words u> die 
whole gamut of speech balloon types 
found in conventional comic strips. Creat- 
ing a balloon is easy; just select a shape 
and Cut, Copy and Paste it into place, add 
a pointer with 'Point Balloon* from 'Ob- 
jects' and drag it to size. Adding text is 
similarly painless* with the additional 
benefit that CSF contains its own selection 
of comic compatible fonts. (Can you 
imagine Dennis the Menace speaking in, 
say, Times or Venice?!) Note, CSF is 
unprotected and can be run from a hard 
disc - thank you Foundauon Publishing - 
but these special fonts reside not in the 
program (surely they could have) but in 
the supplied System file, they must there- 
fore be Font/DAMover-ed across to your 
hard disc System before they can be used. 
Despite the fag involved this is well worth 
doing as die fonts themselves arc excel- 
lent, especially the family of 4 Beach fonts 
- an informal sans serif whose lower case 
is particularly appealing. The fifth, Can- 
yon, is an informal script face which al- 
though suffering, like all scripts, from the 
limited resolution imposed by die 
MacPaint/1 magewriter 72 dpi comes 
across well, certainly it is streets ahead of 
the Zapf Chancery screen font. 

The final window type is for a large 
MacPainting which can be used as a Back- 
ground to the action in several panels. 
Again CSF comes to the aid of the non- 
drawer with some excellent background 
work by Kurt Wahlncr. To overcome the 

sameness of shape for all work produced 
within the 10" x 8" MacPaint format CSF 
has adopted a novel solution which in- 
volves splitting the MacPaint page into 
horizontal strips which are then automati- 
cally reassembled into their original di- 
mensions upon opening. This means for 
instance that the panorama of 'Main 
Street' "somewhere in middle Amer- 
ica", one of the supplied backgrounds, 
works out at a finished size of 24" x 3"; 
that'sonchcckofascroll! Upon installing 
a new background a selection marquee 
prc-sized for the currendy selected panel 
is displayed, the marquee can then be 
dragged around the background and the 
chosen portion Copied to the Panel. 

Assembling the strip is made easier by 
the nice programming touch of an icon bar 
of 14 menu selection equivalent icons, 
which appears just below the menu bar 
itself. These add considerably to the over- 
all feel and speed of use of the program. 

So what else is good? Well the manual 
is. Witty yet informative and full of nice 
touches that give to the terminally non- 
artistic some basic tips on layout and 

composition. And the price is, what 

more do you want? 

ComicStrip Factory is available from 
MacLinc for £55.00 + £2.50 P&P and the 
usual VAT. Comic People, a disk of 
Comic Strip Clip Art is £35 + £2.50 P&P 
and VAT 

File Edit Panel Objects Arrange Windows 




T he 



Mj* Fumpe* ilm-sri i tkdlirr uiih li-v. ittm dip qualil) p*i xluils 
WTvm WE Mined Ihr memory markci in I he I K MB worked 

wirti ilK' Ix"*i We hi'lioi' ihwi- ja- torn- thing* yen iu«j doni 

iioniHiUH' on (tttHikl vuu fit j xiihkI -wir puuirukcr for 

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way iti nu.m! jkjiiim lime limruis b in fit Crxvli Puxrf nicmurv 

ln'ii. llic iiurkci U.iiki M.k M<. i i i- 1 1 \ 


fooir W- 

When they said 

"Mac H for £449" 

I thought they 

were mad. 

But it's true! You can make your Mac 

SE run like a Mac II. 
And it will cost you just .£449. Really 

clever design and advanced 
manufacturing techniques combine to 
make a MacMemory accelerator that's 

very fast and very economic. 
There's no compromise on quality and 

no crashes either. Because Turbo SE 

uses the same 68000 processor as your 

Mac, but twice as fast. That's smart. 

All the memory and all ROM routines 

run at the full 16MH/. That's smart 


You'll hear hot air about 68020 
accelerators, but the fact is Turlxt SF 

keeps up with the fastest, is much 

better value, and won't crash on you. 

And isn't that what yon really care 


Stocked by MacEurope Dealers. If yours 

doesn't have stock, or you don't have a 

dealer, please call us. 

Literature and solid advice. 

From MacEurope. Of course. 

MacMemory dm flouted exclusively hv M«Puruj*r 

Mj|cn I«J!tu» ii j0> iiui* n |ti«h (• ■! b Mj*tufi>p* 


April 1988 

Applc2000 - For all Apple Users 

The Granary, Trowse Bridge, 

Bracondale, Norwich NR1 2EG, England. 

Tel: (OG03) 630636 

Fax: 0603 630374 



Michael OShaughnessy gives an 
in-depth review of this useful utility 

(typeset by Irene Flaxman, using R S G 4) 

So now you have created all those 
large Excel spreadsheets, but the 
only problem is that you always seem 
to have very Utile or no space left on 
your disks. An 800K disk seems plen 
ty, until you start filling it with Hxcel 
spreadsheets and macros - then you 
end up with the dreaded disk shuffle, 
What do you do - take the pledge and 
give up Excel, or go out and buy a 
hard disk and proceed to fill that as 
well? I think anybody using F.xcel ser- 
iously must have encountered this 
problem at one time or another. 

Well, Symantec (recognizing the 
problem) now have a program which 
helps to solve it, called MacSQZ! 
(Mac SQueeZe), which reduces the 
size of Excel files by considerable 
amounts. It consists of an INIT 
(MacSQZ! Init) which you install in 
the system folder, and a desk acces- 
sory (MacSQZ! DA) for changing 
the program options. After dragging 
the INIT into the system folder and 
installing the DA with Font/DA Mo- 
ver you MUST RESTART the system 
in order for it to work. On the disk 
are a number ol other programs - 
MacSQZ! Tools is a stand-alone pro- 
gram run from the desktop to custo- 
mize MacSQZ! and display history 
records; Apple File Exchange, 
MacSQZ! Convert, Batch Sqeezing, 
and Batch Unsqeezing - these four 
programs work together to convert 
existing Excel files to the MacSQZ! 
format and MacSQZ! files back to 
Excel format in a batch mode. It is 
also possible to convert Lotus 1-2-3 
worksheets to the Mac for use with 
Excel. The disk also includes 
MacSQZ! Demo (an Excel work- 
sheet) and a Font/DA Mover to in- 
stall the MacSQZ! DA 

Using the Program 

The procedure for using MacSQZ! 
is as follows: 
1. Open F.xcel, then select the 

MacSQZ! DA in order to set the re- 
quired parameters. 

2. Choose the way you wish 
MacSQZ! to save the active file. It is 
possible to remove all Blank cells, 
specify the Formula Values, assign a 
Password to protect the file contents 
from other users, and Annotate to 
add extra comments to the files for 
future reference WARNING: if you 
add a password, it is not displayed - 
so if you forget it there is no way you 
will be able to use that file again. 

3- Close the DA and choose Save 
from the File menu. Instead of the 
usual Clock, the cursor changes into 
a document which blinks from full- 
to half-size while the file is being 
saved. If this does not happen (i.e. 
the cursor turns into the normal 
clock) then something is wrong and 
the file is being saved as a normal 
Excel document - not as a MacSQZ! 
file. When the Save is complete, 
open the MacSQZ! DA and check 
That the box "Save ay SQZ! file" has 
been selected - if not, just select it, 
reset the parameters and try again. If 
you now close the file and select 
Open from the File menu, the file 
title should now be displayed ending 

with a T. (NB; if you do not wish 
the original file to be over written 
choose Save As instead.) If you can- 
not remember how you set the par- 
ameters for a MacSQZ' file, select 
Open from the File menu, first se- 
lect the file required, then the 
MacSQZ! DA, to display the param- 
eters for the saved file. (NB; you 
cannot Double Click on the small 
MacSQZ! file icons on the desktop to 
open Excel - you must Double Click 
on the Excel icon.) 

In order to use the Batch Squeezing 
or Batch Unsqueezing programs, the 
following programs must be present 
on the Disk - Apple File Exchange, 
MacSQZ! Convert and either the 
Batch Squeezing or the Batch Un- 
squeezing program. 

The procedure for using the Batch 
Squeezing is as follows: 

1. Double Click on the Batch 
Squeezing icon, then click on the 
Drive button below the right-hand 
window. The Mac to Mac menu then 
appears in the menu bar. 

2. Choose the Mac to Mac menu. 
This is a "tear-off menu similar to 
HyperCard menus. At the top, it dis- 
plays Excel to MacSQZ... and 
MacSQZ to Excel. Choose the de- 
sired function to convert to or from 
Excel, and this will be indicated by a 
tick on the left. If the Excel to 
MacSQZ etc. is missing then the 
MacSQZ! Convert program is not 
present on the disk, so Quit the pro- 
gram and place the MacSQZ! Con- 
vert program on the Disk before try- 
ing again. 

3- Selecting Show Only Eligible 
Files from the File menu dims the 
non-Excel or non-MacSQZ! files, 
depending on the setting of the Mac 
to Mac menu. 

■4. Double Clicking on the F.xcel 
to MacSQZ.. option in the Mac to 

F'lQ Edit formula Format Data Options Macro Window 

C7 I 

□ V CtlDM' 

n A C 

m-jcsu^i Control 

r-Modify Settings for- 
<$> Current Document 
Q Session 

I — Squeezing 

©Saue as SQZ! flic 
Qsaue o$ normol flic 

— Current DociimRni 



— Options i 

El Blanks 
H Password 

B Annotate 
Formula Uolues 

ON - Rll blank cells ujHI be RFMnuFD 
ON - Flics WILL be password protected 
ON - Prompt tor file saue comment 

<£) Exact O Approximate QRemoue 





Mac SOZI Control Settings 


Apple200O - For all Apple users 

April 1988 

Mac menu displays the Batch 
Squeezing Options menu. The 
Blanks and Formula Values parame- 
ters can now be selected as required 
and then the menu can be closed 

5. Select the files or folders to be 
converted and then click the Trans- 
late button to start. (NB: Check the 
direction of arrowheads BEFORE 
clicking the Translate button, as it is 
too late afterwards.) 

6. The conversion is complete 
when the cursor changes back to an 
arrow instead of the document which 
blinks from full- to half-size while the 
file is being converted. 

7. Select Quit from the File menu 
lo exit from the conversion pro- 

Testing the Program 

Tests were carried out using a Mac 
Plus with 1Mbyte memory, External 
Disk drive, System Bl-4.0 Finder Bl 
5.4 and Excel V.1.04. 

The 7 different files used for testing 
MacSQZ! are described below;- 

Files 1 and 2 were Spreadsheets 
(small - medium) organized as entry 
forms with many blank cells. 

Files 3 and 4 were large Spread- 
sheets (1000 cells - 1500 cells) which 
had many cells to calculate and also 
formatted the output. 

Files 5 and 6 were Macros (small - 
large) with relatively few blank cells. 

File 7 was a Spreadsheet organized 
in rows as a Database with a consid- 
erable number of blank cells. 

These files were chosen as a typical 
cross-section of the types of files 
noimally generated by users. 

The original Excel files were cop- 
ied onto 6 different disks in order to 




Spr»j<Jsh«t lSwt*<JstiMt 



Jijfc Sp 




medium llOOO c#1I« 

1500 etile 




Exetl:- NORMAL 











Blank e»lk:- STORED 
Fwrnfotolwo EXACT 










Blank ctHsr STORED 

Formula Valu»« r- APPRDX 










Q'i-nk cells.- STORED 
Formula ValgfS ;- REMOVE 










Blank evils r REM0VCD 
Formula valiws -- EXACT 










B1*nk evils :- REMOVED 
Formul*Va1ws:- APPROX. 










Blank «•>!*:- RE MOVED 
Formula. V«k«*.- REMOVE 










MacSQZ! Size Comparisons 

facilitate the testing, one for each 
different combination of the param- 
eters: Blank Cells and Formula Val- 
ues. The Excel files were opened and 
then saved with the new MacSQZ! 
file replacing the original of the 
same name. The resulting MacSQZ! 
files were opened and checked to see 
if any adverse results had occurred 
as a result of the compression. 

When the Blank Cells were Stored 
then apparently no direct discerni- 
ble problems were observed How- 
ever, when the Blank Cells were Re- 
moved different results were 
observed - the entry forms 
files blank cells remained but lost 
any boxes around them, while in the 
larger files (1000 cells and 1500 cells) 
the box showed 100% but the pro 
gram became confused whilst trying 
put back the missing blank cells and 
the system had to be restarted. 

So before using the program for all 
your files, take a typical spreadsheet 
you have created and save it then re- 
open the resulting MacSQZ! file to 
check everything is OK. Repeal the 
process, compressing the file further 
and further, using the order shown 

* File Edit Country 



to Moc 

ftpplp Flip Exchange 


|Q bb 



s* nppiK r iir i: h* iiiiiiijt* 

[ li\in*lnti> J 


□ UotkTop 

D INTRO macrol 
D Mfl(SQZ! Coni»ci1 
D MAIN macro* 

IDS Moc to Mac = 

EhccI to MacSOZ... 
v MacSQZ to Encel 


• Tenl translation... 
♦ Default translation 

^T- r 

(X) Res edit 
38. 5K bytes mmilntiip 


38.5K byte* ounllnblB 


[ (Inon ] [ nnue 



J [New Folder] 


[Neu» Folder] j f Eject 

[ Eject 

MacSOZI Batch Unsqueezing 

in the table, until you find the opti- 
mum setting (i.e. the maximum 
compression without any corruption 
of data). This setting can then be 
used as your standard for using 

The table shows rhe results of sav- 
ing the different files with varying 
parameters and also the total disk 
space used and available after sav- 
ing the files. As can be seen from the 
table, the difference between the 
amount of disk space used and avail- 
able (for the original Excel files) re- 
verses after using MacSQZ! to save 
the most compressed version. Even 
with the Blank Cells option set to 
Stored considerable disk space can 
be reclaimed. 


The MacSQZ! program does what 
it sets out lo do - i.e. compress Ex- 
cel files by considerable amounts. It 
is easy to learn and use, and it 
should pay for its self in a relatively 
short time by reducing the amount 
of disks required. 

On a hard disk , the results should 
be a better usage of the disk's capaci 
ty, resulting in a less frequent need 
to delete files from the disk. 

The documentation is clear and 
concise, both in the manual and in 
the file on disk containing the up- 
to-date changes and corrections. 

Considering the prices of disks, 
both floppy and hard , then the 
program is quite reasonably priced . 

The program is not Copy Protect- 
ed , which makes it easy to install. 

in all, a serious program which Ex- 
cel Power Users should find useful in 
their day-to-day work. 

Price J.65.00 

Hie MacSerious Company 

1 7 Park Circus Place 

Glasgow G3 6AH 

Tel 04 1 -332-5622 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



Dave and Irene Flaxman visited the 
MacWorld Expo, in San Francisco - the 

biggest yet! 

Once again, we visited MacWorld as 
part of our annual holiday, and we are 
happy to report on the expo. How- 
ever, we feel that we must dear a 
misconception that seems to be preva 
lent in the Group, relating to the 
source of funds to finance such trips. 
All funds for our visits to MacWorld in 
America (of which there have been 
four to date) have been provided by 
ourselves, from our personal re- 
sources. At no time have we asked for, 
nor expected, a contribution from 

We visited MacWorld, at the 
Moscone Centre in San Francisco, for 
four days in all. The expo was open to 
ihe public for three days, but there was 
a preview day for business contacts, 
which we were also invited to attend. 

The size of the expo was noticeably 
larger than last year - then, only half 
Ihe Centre was used for MacWorld, 
with a Boal Show taking place simul- 
taneously. This year, MacWorld took 
up the whole and we are assured that 
next year's will be split between two 
venues, as there does not appear to be 
a single venue which will be large 
enough to accommodate the whole 
show. Incidentally, the same is true of 
the Boston expo, exhibitors have 
been asked to indicate at which venue 
they wish to book space. How many 
visited the Expo.? '1 "he last estimate we 
heard was that 50,000 members of the 
general public were there and we can 
well believe it, because it was really 
packed! Although the entrance fees 
are quite high, they do allow entry for 
all three days of the expo. It was 

interesting that this was the first expo, 
which was open on a Sunday, which 
the Americans felt would never hap- 

Nigel Strudwick gave an overview of 
the expo last month - looking at the 
event from the point-of-view of a 
member of the public, Wc were able to 
attend some of the presentations of 
new products, including the launch of 
the LaserWriter II range, Appleshare 
PC, and the MIDI interface from Apple. 

The keynote speech from John 
Scully was interesting - 1 have to admit 
that I was impressed, as the man did 
not read his speech (we were close 
enough lo know this), but the speech 
lasted about thirty minutes, and he did 
not hesitate once! The auditorium was 
packed, and there was some distur- 
bance outside the doors, as more 
people tried to enter - the security staff 
had difficulty in keeping them out' He 
presented an interesting view of the 
future - the Knowledge Navigator was 
introduced as being Apple's view of 
computers to come. This was a video 
presentation of a new concept in com- 
puter technology. The cpu was the 
size of the well-known Filofax diary, 
but opened with the familiar Macin- 
tosh sound. Two-way audio commu- 
nication was possible, between the 
Mac's owner and the Mac itself. The 
machine intercepted telephone calls, 
look messages, made telephone calls 
and left messages - much as any good 
secretary would do. The video was 
very much "tongue-in-cheek", but it 
left you wondering . . . ? 

The joint announcement by Apple 
and DEC, that the two companies 
would be combining their resources 
for joint development of networking 
products, was very well received. 
Admittedly, DEC made similar an- 
nouncements in respect of other 
companies, but it was still seen as 

being a great step forward. We were 
assured that there was no intention 
that one company should take over 
the other - rather, they will each de- 
velop their own product ranges inde- 

Quite apait from the expo, we were 
interested to read any press coverage 
given to Apple and their products. 
One news item reported in the general 
press referred to a tussle between 
Apple and the Internal Revenue Serv- 
ice. Apparently, the IRS have staned a 
campaign of checking up on many of 
the companies in "Silicon Valley'' 
They had checked back through three 
years' Apple accounts, and had pre- 
sented a bill for back-tax amounting to 
S85,000,000. This amount related to 
the years 1981. 1982 and 1983 - so 
there may be more to come? Apple; are 
contesting the tax demand, (Source: 
San Jose Mercury News - Wednesday, 
January 20lh). 

In the past, we've seen DeskTop 
Publishing and DeskTop Communica- 
tions, now the latest idea is DeskTop 
Presentations. Kveryone has suddenly 
realised just what a large market there 
is, waiting for the tools to make pres- 
entation preparation easier. What bet- 
ter starting-point could there be, but 
the Macintosh? A number of compa 
nies have been working in conjunc- 
tion with Apple to develop new prod- 
ucts which will attack this sector of the 
market, and MacWorld provided the 
Ideal stage for the launch of such 
products. Amongst them were Kodak, 
Microsoft, Gcnigraphics, IDD, 
Olduvai and Cricket. 

Having seen the presentation of the 
Kodak LCD Display Panel, we were 
impressed. A card is inserted into your 
Mac (Plus or SE), a hole has to be cut 
into the back of the Mac, to allow the 
attachment of the display panel, then 
the panel is placed onto an overhead 
projector (u p to ten feet away from the 
Mac). As you use the Macintosh, the 
screen display is echoed onto the LCD 
display panel, and thence (via the 
overhead projector) projected onto a 
large screen. Currently, there is no Mac 
II version, and colour is not supported, 
but the display is true black-and- 
white, and provides a useful tool for 
presentations to a fairly large audi- 
ence. We asked about availability and 
pricing in the UK - and met the usual 
answer. The product will be launched 
in the States in April 1988, with the 
worldwide launch a few weeks later. 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

The price in the States is SI 495 * $99 
for die card, but no indication was 
given of prices elsewhere. One dis- 
turbing thing was that there had appar- 
ently been close liaison between 
Apple and Kodak during develop- 
ment, but a question as to whether the 
opening of the Mac etc would invali- 
date the warranty was left unanswered 
- the representative from Apple didn't 
seem to know! Obviously, this is ex- 
pected to be a strong market, as we 
saw several products of a similar na- 
ture at the expo - but none were 
launched as forcibly as the Kodak 

Cricket Software gave an imagina- 
tive presentation of their new prod- 
ucts, again aimed at the DeskTop 
Presentations market. The first was 
Cricket Presents, which is a program 
for producing colour slides for presen- 
tations in as short a time as possible. 
This was a medium popular with other 
developers, too. Using the Mac to 
create colour slides is an obvious use 
for the machine's excellent graphics 
capabilities, particularly using the col- 
our capabilities of the Mac II. Their 
new Cricket Paint program looked 
very impressive, although it is not yet 
complete. There were some very nice 
new Features, in addition to the usual 
standard facilities we have come to 
expect in Paint-type programs. 

Microsoft acquired PowerPoint in 
1987 and have developed it since then, 
with a view to entering the DeskTop 
Presentations market themselves. 
They launched their new product in 
conjunction with Geuigraphics, one 
of the largest companies in the States 
in the field of preparing presentation 
graphics. Their speciality is the pro- 
duction of 35mm colour slides for their 
clients - the individual clients are then 
able to give thcu presentation in style 
and with confidence. The two compa- 
nies are undertaking a joint venture to 

offer a service for clients to decide at 
what stage they need to bring in the 
expert assistance of Genigraphics. I 
have not heard of any similar company 
in this country, so it may be that there 
is a niche there for some enterprising 

IDD were presenting [heir new 
program, Dreams. This is the company 
that launched MacDraft, and there is 
an upgrade path from MacDraft lo 
Dreams. Their stated aim is to provide 
powerful easy-to-use CAD tools for all. 
Dreams is a CAD package, and looks 
very powerful. The company see the 
CAD market as having three ranges - 
the lower-end entry level programs at 
around $200; the mid-range programs 
at around $500; the high-end pro- 
grams at around $2000. Dreams is 
marketed in die mid-range, at $500 (or 
$200 to upgrade from MacDraft). The 
tools arc organised in levels of menu - 
starting simply, the facilities become 
more powerful and more complex as 
you delve deeper into the menus. 
Palettes can be changed, e.g. to create 
(or import) new patterns for use in 
your drafting, and you can work in 
several 'layers', dependant on the 
available memory. 

Olduvai have featured in a previous 
issue of the magazine, when we re- 
viewed their Posl-ART library of 
graphics. They introduced five new 
products at the expo. - FontShare al- 
lows downloadable PostScript fonts to 
be shared by all the Macs on a net- 
work; ADBridge allows the use of the 

the new desktop bus with a Mac 512E 
or Mac Plus, and allows the use of the 
Mac SH and Mac 11 with peripherals 
designed for the 512E and Plus; DA- 
Switcher // allows you to work with 
multiple desk accessories, and there's 
a free upgrade for registered owners of 
the original utility; Post-ART IT in- 
cludes more full-page PostScript illus- 
trations by J Cicconc; and Icon-It! 
Runtime allows the use of icons in 
menu bars. They also demonstrated 
their LaserAccelerator and Memory 
Expansion board for the LaserWriter, 
and READ- IT! OCR software for use 
with any scanner (there's a separate 
product for the Thunderscan), which 
allows any graphics scanner to impon 
text with remarkable accuracy. As we 
slated in our previous article about this 
company, we liked the people - they 
are enthusiastic, and they seem deter- 
mined to bring good, useful products 
to the market at reasonable prices. 

Silicon Beach Software, Inc. intro- 
duced Digital Darkroom, an image- 
enhancement program which imports 
and exports files in PICT, PICT-2, TIFF, 
MacPaint, SuperPaint, and Thunder- 
scan formats. It features an "Auto 
Trace" option for translating bit 
mapped images into a draw environ- 
ment outline, and will run on a Mac 
512E, Plus, SE, or II computer although 
1 Mbyte of RAM and a hard disk arc 
recommended. The program should 
be available later in the first quarter 
and sell for S295 (no UK prices at this 

GE Software h a ve a new produ ct in 
the pipeline. Their method of intro- 
duction was a bit different - they had 
a competition to name "Product X". 
These are the people who brought us 
the "mock" packages, Quick Keys, and 
other useful utilities, so it should be 
worth waiting for. 
Apple's new software company, 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


Claris, made their first appear- 
ance.with the upgrades for the staple 
Apple products - MacWritc, MacPaint, 
MacDraw, etc. There is an upgrade 
path for current users, but there were 
no details so far as the European 
market was concerned - either of 
availability or of distributors. It's vital 
that Claris upgrade their products, 
when you consider how much compe- 
tition they now have to contend with, 
and the facilities which have been 
added to the later-developed prod- 

Emerald City Software was a 
name new to us, but their laserTalk 
software interested us. It is described 
a.s a PostScript development environ- 
ment for serious PosiScript developers 
and desktop publishers. Amongst its 
features are interactive access to the 
LaserWriter's PostScript intc rpreter 
over Applctalk, an on-scrccn preview 
window and on-line operator descrip- 
tions from the PostScript Language 
Reference Manual. 

LaserWare, Tnc. were demonstrat- 
ing the latest version of their Laser- 
Paint program, which now includes 
automatic 4-colour process separa- 
tions using the Pantone Matching 
System - the program will create the 
four separation prints, including regis- 
tration marks on each, and indicating 
which colour the printer should use 
with each separation. 

Adobe were showing Display Post- 
Script, as Nigel said, but they were also 
showing Illustrator 88. The new ver- 
sion (which is due for release shortly) 
provides some new features, and the 
colour options were being demon- 
strated in conjunction with the new 
colour printers. I have always liked 
Illustrator, but the new features prom- 
ise more power - one of the most 
impressive being the ability to place 
two images of similar shape (the ex- 
ample being demonstrated used the 
letter "S" and an outline sketch of a 
swan), and the program can then cre- 
ate the intermediate graphics to "con- 
vert" one image to the other. Potential 
buyers in the States were advised that, 
if they purchase Illustrator now, there 
will be no charge for the upgrade to Il- 
lustrator 88 when it is available - an 
obvious answer to prevent the defer- 
ment of purchases, but effective. We 
were not advised whether the same 
offer would be available in Europe. 

Colour was definitely one of the 
highlights of the show, with colour 

displays, colour printers, and even a 
colour scanner from Sharp. It is a 
commodity which has to be paid for, 
though - the prices are high. Bill Bates 
(of JustText fame), and Mike Saenz 
have jointly developed a colour desk- 
top publishing system called Lithogra 
pher. The initial publication produced 
by the system is a "graphic novel" Iron 
Man (reminiscent of the cartoon books 
of our youth). Mike was showing an 
incomplete version at Boston, where it 
raised a great deal of interest, and the 
final version looks good - but the price 
is high, it is for the professional mar- 

Dayna Communications, Inc. 
were showing DaynaFile, their range 
of the external disk drives for the Mac 
which will read from and write to MS- 
DOS data disks. This may be the ideal 
solution for those of us who are forced 
louse IBM or compatibles at the office, 
but prefer our Macs at home - there 
may be times, though, when we need 
to bring that work home! 'Hie drives 
come as one- or two drive units, and 
you can even specify what formats you 
want for each drive - e.g. 5.25" (360K), 
3.5" (720K). 

The uset groups were well-repre- 
sented, including BMUG, BCS and 
Apda. They arc encouraged by Apple, 
although they retain their independ- 
ence - e.g. BMUG and BCS feature in 
all Apple's user manuals. We called in 
to a meeting of I he Los Angelas Macin- 
tosh Users Group during our stay. 
Although it is regarded as a "local" 
group, there were around 400 mem- 
bers at the meeting we attended - and 
that appeared to be quite usual! 

One unusual exhibit M a computer 
expo was a Bulck automobile. The 
purpose of the exhibit was to demon- 
strate a new service to potential cus- 
tomers - it is now possible to obtain a 
Mac disk with all the details of the car 
of your choice. This enables you to 
decide what features you require, how 
much it will cost, etc. This just adds 
emphasis to the fact that die Macintosh 
is seen as a powerful business ma 
chine in the States - it's image is 
entirely different to the low profile it is 
given in this country. 

So many products were on display 
without offering immediate availabil- 
ity, and sometimes the waiting be 
comes too long. Even when these new 
products appear for sale in the Stales, 
we may still find that we have to wait 
for some time before they arc available 

to us - if they ever come over. We met 
some of the UK distributors at the 
show, and it was interesting to guess 
who was chasing what - but nobody 
was giving away any secrets, so we 
shall just have to be patient until an- 
nouncements are made. 

We met a number of Europeans who 
had gone over to die expo - either for 
interest, or to find distributors for their 
new products. They were su rpriscd by 
the size of the event, and the different 
attitude to the market in the States - it 
requires an entirely different approach 
to marketing strategy. We were 
pleased to find these people going 
over, and made some new "local" 

We enjoyed our trip, but wc were 
disappointed in some ways, as there 
were few new products which really 
interested us, and we found that many 
items which were being "introduced" 
were those which we had previously 
seen at other shows, but for which the 
development time has lx:en extended 
- examples being Ready Sel Go 1 and 
FullWritc. In some cases, it has 
reached a stage where such "new" 
products are being taken over by the 
larger companies, who will complete 
the development and thereby enter a 
new field at a fraction of the cost that 
would otherwise be incurred. 

Most of the new products were 
hardware, rather than software, and 
many were catering for the Macintosh 
II - and very pricey. This is only to be 
expected, I suppose, but it left us 
wondering what would be happening 
for the old Mac Pluses in a year or two? 

There is no doubt about it, though - 
there is nothing like this event in the 
UK. The Mac is so strong in the States 
that the MacWorld Expo is a staggering 
event. So much so, that there are to be 
three next year - with Washington 
being added to Boston and San Fran- 
cisco as the annual venues. 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 



Tom Wright plays with this D.A. and is now 
saving to purchase it! 

AFFINIFILE is a desk accessory (by 
Marsh Gosnell, Sharon Aker, and Affinity 
Microsystems) which provides Mac users 
with a dynamic filing system. The pro- 
gram package includes an 800k disk 
which carries Finder 5.5, System 4.1, and 
Affinifile. According to the manual if you 
do not have an 800k drive you can drag the 
four visible files onto 400k disks. Affini- 
file will work on Mac 512E, Mac Plus, 
Mac SB, and Mac IK and is said to be 

compatible with Finder 5.3/System 3.2 or 
Finder 5.5/System 4.1. 
Before saying anything else, if my com- 
ments about Affinifile sound a litdc over 
enthusiastic please bear with me, I am new 
to Macintosh and haven't encountered a 

facility like Affinifile before (if there are 

oihers). When I first looked at the program 
1 wondered if I would find it as apparently 
useful as HyperCard, tny answer to that is 
now 'no contest* for the type and size of 
applications for which Affinifile is suit- 
able. The immediate availability of Affini- 
file from the Apple menu scores heavily 
and the fact that Affinifile can handle 
graphics as well as various types of text 
manipulation makes it quite powerful. If 
you have been looking for a database facil- 
ity complete with the ability to cross refer- 
ence topics which can be available from 
the Apple menu then take a look at Affini- 

When in use Affinifile produces a display 
similar to the following : 


Toplci tnaex 

Tultphone Humors 


Chtft B*ft*r« 0999-19191 2 





PoorKarr^ 99.l»«tHW». 

AfftefO. ©IM7 AffirnHHtarMV^t.f-i.LU.VI.0 


Information is stored as "Topics" and 
"Subtopics" each topic being capable of 
holding up to 5,000 words of text in the 
scrolling noLes window, or if you want to 
count it as characters you have 32,000 per 

In the example above "Telephone Num- 
bers" has been selected as the active topic 
in the top notes window, with the title of 
the notes topic being displayed above the 
notes window on the right hand side. The 

selected topic is further highlighted by 
being shown in inverse characters in the 
left hand side window. The other topic 
shown in the topic window has been cross- 
referenced to '"telephone Numbers", the 
ability to cross reference data is a very 
useful feature of Affinifile. 

Twen ty one commands are available from 
within the Affinifile l diamond' which 
appears in the menu bar whenever Affini- 
file is selected from the Apple menu. 
Among the commands available arc : 
FIND - There is an excellent "Find" 
facility in the program which is capable of 
finding entries from a search key of one or 
two characters if required, the "Find" fa- 
cility can be used in either of the notes 
windows as well as being used on topics or 

PRINT- hardcopy from cither a section 
of the current document or the whole 
document. The graphic images associated 
with a document can also be printed out. 
ALIAS MNK - provides a method of 
presenting identical information under 
different names in the topics list, both text 
and graphics can be linked. 
CROSS REFERENCE - between the 
selected topic and other topics and su btop- 
ics (as in the above example). 
CHANGE - selected topic name or 

status, you can change spelling or add a 
date, change a subtopic into a topic, or a 
topic into a subtopic. 
SHOW GRAPHIC - topics which have 
accompanying graphics arc shown under- 
lined as in the example above. Affinifile 
includes a set of demonstration graphics 
examples of which are shown below , other 
graphics can be imported via the 
clipboard. (The graphics examples pro- 
vided with Affinifile are by courtesy of 
Miles Computing, the examples are from 
"Mac the Knife Volumes, People, Places, 
and Things) 

COMPARE- the current topic with die 
previously selected one. 
DATE STAMP - can be used to name a 
topic or subtopic with the current date. 
TIME STAMP - can bo entered into 
either the notes or topics window using a 

twenty four hour clock format, 
RESIZE UP/DOWN - UP makes the 
"sec also" window larger, DOWN resets 
window sizes so that the topic area is 

MERGE - enables die user to merge files 
which have been created under Affinifile, 
there is a choice between merging selected 
parts of files and complete files. 
IMPORT/EXPORT - text files can be 
imported to Affinifile and files created 
under Affinifile can be exported for other 
applications as text files. 

Since receiving Affinifile for review I 
have grown used to having information 
"on tap" and have been very impressed 
withbotheaseandspeedofuse. Therange 
of applications which would benefit from 
the presence of Affinifile appears to be 
considerable, from the simple telephone 
numbers and addresses example above 
through other business related files 
(prices, specifications, appointments, 
etc), not forgetting the fun uses to which it 
can be put. "Boilerplate" use for fre- 
quently used text isanoiher application for 
which Affinifile appears suitable. 
We are grateful for supply of the review 
copy of Affinifile which is recommended 
to all members (I am sorry to see it go and 
shall have to start saving the pennies for 


April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Us>ers 


Mind and Compute 11 

by Bill Pearce 

This dissertation begins with ihc assumption that 
maybe in a computer we have a passable imitation of 
the human mind, at least as regards thinking, reasoning, 
decision making etc. The computer can of course be 
made to simulate moods and emotions, but to what pur- 
pose? We don't employ computers to do our living for us. 

This fact itself identifies a great difference which I shall 
write off as 'true but trivial'. If it can't feel like we do, 
this in itself does not rule out the possibility that it can 
perhaps think like we do. This is the proposition I wish 
to pursue at length. 

I begin by describing two opposing and exaggerated 
views :- 

The computerphile who sees the microprocessor 
as a huge improvement on the stumbling, forget- 
ful brain that gets facts wrong, calculations 
wrong, overlooks vitally important factors at a 
crucial moment and so on. 

'ltie computerphobe who sees the microproces- 
sor as a blinkered, dogmatic, unimaginative 
monster that will happily accept that black is 
white if it is told so. 

From this thumb-nail scenario a distinction is begin- 
ning to emerge. Certain tasks are ideal for computers, 
'the storing and retrieving of information in a database is 
the best example. Word processors, graphics design, 
spreadsheets follow, probably in that order. A 
spreadsheet can begin to strain a computer's usefulness 
to the limit. But in all these areas the advantages arc with 
the computer. It handles huge masses of data with great 
speed and accuracy. The human mind cannot begin to 
compete on either count. 

Anyone who writes programs or undertakes systems 
analysis soon realises that this says it all. Once we 
enter the field of decision-making the pendulum begins 
to swing the other way. Typically, decisions can depend 
on :- 

- multiple factors which may change daily and 
may not be predefinahle 

- experience of the likely consequences of 
decisions in that field 

On the face of it, the computer can perform any task 
asked of it. This may be true, But there arc practical 
limitations. Let us first look at how a computer makes a 

Computer decisions 

However many factors we ask the computer to con- 
sider of whatever type, the final decision and indeed 
every decision en route to the final decision reduces to 
the question "Is A > B? w . A and B refer of course to vari- 
able quantities, not to the letters of the alphabet 

Whether all human decisions can be similarly reduced is 
beside the point because, as 1 hope to show later, human 
decisions can take account of factors which are either too 
complex in be worth feeding into the computer, or fac- 
tors which by their very nature cannot be fed in. There 
would not be much point for instance in asking a com- 
puter which of two pictures it preferred, or even asking it 
to predict which picture YOU might prefer 

At each step in its decision making, the computer 
methodically and rapidly checks every condition that 
the programmer has put in the program. The more 
sophisticated programs allow the computer to modify its 
decisions in the light of the consequences of earlier 
decisions. This may sound impressive but the limitation 
is essentially the same, the conditions are still limited to 
those foreseen by the programmer 

My thesis is this - the computer does not decide any- 
thing, it looks up Cor calculates) the appropriate 
course of action according to the niles specified by the 

Here is die same thesis in different terms. As we learn 
about computers, binary and hexadecimal numbers, 
gates, bits, bytes, registers, shifts, buses, etc. etc. , some- 
where along the road we can forget that we are dealing 
with nothing more than Blackpool Illuminations packed 
in a box. No-one would dream of accusing Blackpool 
Lights of thinking. The jargon and the mystique disguise 
the simple fact - the computer is a box of switches. 

I propose to look in greater detail at three areas that il- 
lustrate the kind of problem I am describing, lhe areas 
arc timetables and rotas, picture recognition and finally 
multilingual translation. 

Timetables and Rotas 

In the early days of mainframe computers several at- 
tempts were made to get die computer to write a 
timetable. The results were somewhat predictable. If they 
ever produced a timetable at all, it was unsuitable and 
would have been more quickly produced without a 
computer. No doubt the reader can guess some of the 
reasons for this failure. 

Programmers arc still trying to do the same thing on 
minicomputers. On the one hand the teacher under- 
estimates the complexity of the decisions he has to make. 
I do not believe he can identify beforehand all the con- 
ditions he will apply as the timetable develops. On the 
other hand the programmer, who may well not be a 
teacher, accepts that the task is as simple as the teacher 
thinks it is. 

My answer to the problem was to provide what is in 
effect an electronic pegboard. Data entered on a 
class timetable is automatically transferred to the correct 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

staff timetable and vice versa. Resources can never be 
double-booked so mistakes are impossible. An option 
facility allows option groups, modules and setting. The 
computer gives maximum electronic backup but makes 
none of the decisions. Those who use it find it incredibly 
simple lo understand. Those who have used other sys- 
tems are impressed with the fact that a completed 
timetable remains just as editable as a blank one. Yet I 
meet many doubting teachers who are convinced the 
computer could give much more help. They are of 
course looking at only one small part of the entire opera- 
tion. They know that it is quite possible for the program 
to be told e.g. 

that class X is always in room Y ( except when 
A.B.C.D . . . ) 

- that Miss C is always in room Z ( except when 
P.Q.K.S . . . . ) 

- that Mr. A is available only W, Th, Fr mornings 

- that no class should have Music after Games 

- that there must always be one of the listed staff 
in one of the listed rooms (probably several of 
these lists) 

- the listed staff must not take any of the listed 

- one of the listed staff must always be free 

- all the listed staff must be available together at 

least once 

- all the listed classes must have at least one 
morning period in each of trie listed subjects 

all the listed subjects must be given at least one 
double period with every class 

- all First Year classes must have one period of 
French every day 

This is a ridiculously short list of a few reasonable re- 
quirements. Any teacher can double, treble, quad- 
ruple the list without effort. 

Let us suppose that we decide to let the program at- 
tend to these matters for us. On fact the analytical ap- 
proach would require much more than this - e.g. exactly 
how many periods of each subject should each class 
have, what subjects does each teacher offer and to what 
level, how many periods of each, how many frees, ideal 
distribution of periods for classes/teachers etc.) 

Before any work on the timetables begins, all this 
preliminary data has to be entered. The manual has 
to explain how this can be done, and how it can be un- 
done. Once these preliminaries are over the teacher (or 
the program) may start entering actual bookings and 
reaps the benefit of the spadework, UNTIL one or other 
of the conditions changes. This can happen at any time 
during the currency of the timetable and even during the 
compilation period. This is one of the worst drawbacks 
to the analytical timetable: you cannot just repair the 
roof, you must dig up the foundations. A teacher can be 
excused for not seeing the problem, but a programmer 
should spot it at once. 

That is not the full story of the drawbacks to asking 
the computer to check these conditions, however few 
and however simple. Every condition imposes another 
straitjacket; this may not worry the programmer but it 
docs the user. 

I am using analytical to mean a program that has been 
given information about some of the conditions to 
check. My approach I describe as synthetic, where the 
computer knows nothing except the actual bookings in- 

I classed Rotas along with Timetables. Although a rota 
program must operate in a totally different way (we 
are not looking for clashes, we are checking for hours 
worked in conjunction with manning levels, where staff 
qualifications and/or grades are a significant factor) the 
total task clearly divides into two distint types of opera- 
tion - 

1. The purely mechanical totaling of hours, 
number of bookings of each grade for each day 

2. The complex decision-making where the con- 
ditions to be met are almost infinitely variable. 

Again I personally give a pegboard answer. The result- 
ing program is simple to understand and operate, the 
rota remains editable from start to finish. 

Picture recognition 

Let us feed two identical pictures into a computer. To 
the computer of course each picture is a scries of 
numbers. Get the computer to compare them. The com- 
puter would confirm in a matter of seconds that the pic- 
tures were identical. Ask a person to compare them. The 
person would Spot the overall similarity instantly but 
would never be able to confirm that they were identical 
in every detail. "SPOT THE DIFFERENCES" is a popular 

Let us now shift one of the pictures one pixel (smallest 
picture element) to the left. It would be a very clever 
program that could recognize any similarity between the 
two pictures. It is no use saying that a simple bit shift 
solves the problem. How does either the programmer or 
the program know which bit shift to try, or how many. 
Then change the size of the picture, or its perspective. 
Each of these simple changes plays havoc with the num- 
bers stored in the computer. Yet none of these changes 
makes any difference to the human, who continues to 
spot the similarity instantly. 

If you arc still desperately trying to get the computer to 
reconstitute the picture, I shall print it on a flag and let 
it flutter in the breeze! I believe this example illustrates as 
well as any the difference in modus operandi between 
mind and computer. The mind is not exact, can overlook 
important factors, forget details, but it gets the overall 
picture at a glance. 

Multilingual translation 

This next example takes us well into the realm of so- 
called artificial intelligence. In passing I would com- 
ment that at last the computer makes it possible to 
produce a dictionary that is not out of date long before it 
is published. Whether the publishers have taken advan- 
tage of this facility 1 cannot say. But as for live ad hoc 
translation! This is the computer equivalent of walking 
through quicksand. Even if we ignore the fact that 
language is constantly changing, which has always made 
large dictionaries out-of-date before they were off the 
press, the complexities of how context affects meaning, 
the subtle ways in which different connotations of a 
word can be brought out, the distortions brought about 
by sarcasm or humour - all these factors militate against a 
computer ever doing more than make a travesty of 
translation. The problem is similar to the problem of pic- 
ture recognition. The computer can only work literally 
and according to rule. The programmer leaches the 
computer a whole battery of tricks to help it to recognise 
idioms, sarcasm, humour and so on. But just as it cannot 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


take in the whole contour of a picture at one fell swoop, 
neither can it assess ihe impon of the lull context at one 
fell swoop. Programmers currently imagine that selective 
word checking will provide the solution, on the assump- 
tion that this is how the human mind solves the problem. 
This method certainly enables the computer to churn out 
gibberish far more quickly. 

The language translation programs, to be anything like 
competent, will need an army of expert programmers 
and expert linguists to maintain them until they even 
tually seize up with the mass of indigestible code. They 
are the white elephants of the computer world and I an- 
ticipate the search for artificial intelligence is destined to 
produce quite a crop (or is it a herd) of white elephants. 

Here is a further illustration of the amazing power of 
the mind to arrive at a complex decision without 
going through a step by step check. Let us suppose our 
computer has a spelling checker and that you, as a 
representative of a human mind, are a good speller. Both 
you and the computer are presented with a list of twenty 
words, one of which is an English word which is in the 
checker, and the remaining words arc all foreign words 
that do not resemble English words. The task is to iden- 
tify the English word. Now i am not interested in how 
fast you do it. The chances arc you will beat the com- 
puter. But a faster processor and a better search method 
might enable the computer to heat you 




Accepts any numerical 
input hut rigidly 
Monitors system 
variables similarly 
All predetermined 

Accepts all Bsnsoru 
data globally. Flexibly 
prioritised according 
to the situation 
Munituf -.. in! «-i state 


Search and compare 
Mostly 100 X sure 
May f.iil to rlptpr.r 
complex mutation 

Instantaneous but may 
fall vr be False 
Can Follow very 
complex mutation 


By search or by 
riirpr.t pninrpr 
130% sure 

Mnsriij rplUhlp hut 
may rail or be (alee 


Accurate to speclflprf 


UnrpiUhlP- hpst left to 
1 in |i-i ■■:, abacus, 
calculator or even a 

The question is - How did you do il? We know exactly 
how the computer did it. We (humans) wrote the 
program. It compared each word in the list lo as many 
words as necessary, depending on the search technique 
used, in order to establish whether or not the word was 
in the spelling checker. Now how did you do it? Did you 
mentally run through all the words you could think of, 
painstakingly comparing letter by letter (which is how a 
computer compares words)? Or did you recognize the 
English word as soon as you saw it? 

Even if the computer has had the target word in 
memory a million times before, it will never recog- 
nise it. It will blindly compare each search word with 
each check word and they all come and go as strangers. 

I do not offer any explanation of how this instant match- 
ing operates, though it is discussed in a later essay. 
'ITicrc is no conceivable way in which computers as we 

know them could emulate this feat. I think it may be 
worth noting that the computer recognition process 
would not have much survival value in a real-life emer- 
gency! Only a global perception of the whole situation 
gives sufficient data at a stroke for immediate effective 
responses. A human with a computer for a brain would 
perish before he could react to adverse conditions. He 
could burn to death while his computer was busy check- 
ing that he was not drowning The 'artificial intelligence' 
wc seek bears no resemblance to real intelligence. Its 
decisions are all "look-up" decisions. Intelligence implies 
finding new solutions to new problems. All solutions 
produced by a computer are tautologies: they are implicit 
in the rules we gave iL The computer itself cannot 
produce a valid rule. (It can, but a human would have to 
verify it!) 

Mind imitates computer 

There are several tricks that the mind can employ to 
"improve the memory". First they make use of the 
facility we have for forming associations. If this facility is 
combined wilh any trick for bringing up an ordered se- 
quence of data (which is what computers do so admirab- 
ly) e.g. by simply numbering die pictures we wish to 
recall, we get the illusion of improving our memory. 
These tricks do have their uses and can be invaluable to 
a public speaker. The speaker can thus easily ensure thin 
all the points are made and in the correct order. One 
problem that occurs with this technique is lhat whereas 
the computer can wipe the slate clean and start again, 
the mind carries the debris from earlier exercises and in- 
terference takes place. 

Computer imitates mind 

(i.e. artificial intelligence) 

Serious attempts to leach the computer to ape human 
thinking are attempting an impossible task The com- 
puter does not have the wherewithal to formulate an in- 
stantaneous global view of any situation. This global 
view must not be confused with a hit-or-miss selective 
view. Wc do not have a hazy, partial or selective view of 
a picture, wc have an instant perception of the whole 
picture, taking in the relation of parts to the whole and 
to one another The computer cannot have a similar per 
ception At any given millisecond il is contemplating one 
bit of one byte and has forgotten all about the previous 
bit. The mind instantly recognises words while convers- 
ing or reading, selecting suitable connotations in lull 
flight. The computer has to conduct progressively more 
complex searches in order to simulate recognition. I 
return to the theme of instant recognition in another dis- 

The Apple Macintosh with its hierarchical system of 
pointers and hierarchical filing system would appear 
to imitate to a degree the mind's facility for organising its 
operations. Bill Atkinson's 'HyperCard' team make much 
of the mind's ability to associate ideas. They do not 
however make the mistake of claiming that the computer 
can make sensible associations. HyperCard allows you to 
make them. One of the 'Help' pages points out that the 
computer is not intelligent. The incredible ability of the 
mind to create direct-access pointers to every single con 
cept, simple or complex, that it bothers to file at all, link- 
ing it intelligibly with the existing structures, has no 
parallel in any mechanism outside living organisms. It is 
thought that it does all this filing while wc are asleep. 
Perhaps that is why we cannot understand the system' 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 

Respect for numbers 

I have thus far made nothing of the fact that a computer 
sees everything in terms of numbers. That of itself is 
no grounds for denying its right to be classed as a think- 
ing machine. One can only marvel that such clever 
representations of events in lime and space can be built 
out of a one-dimensional series of numbers. We tend to 
associate numbers with intellectual activity and are easily 
induced to think that a machine which deals exclusively 
and expertly with numbers could well be thinking, or as 
near as makes no difference. 

But note that the difference between human and 
computer perceptions as identified earlier in the pic- 
ture recognition and word recognition tests is not merely 
a difference of degree, it is a difference in kind. Selective 
sampling techniques do not imitate instantaneous global 
perception, they introduce a random clement which can 
totally invalidate the perception. Any inaccuracies in the 
human perception are the result not of selective sampling 
but of the data (picture data that is) not being quantita- 
tive. The mind can of course employ random sampling 
e.g. rapid skimming of text, and is then prone to the 
same errors as the computer. Note also thai the human 
may be quite prone to spelling errors - that is why we 
have spelling checkers. 

AS I have made frequent mention of the process of 
recognition, I would like to restate my argument in 
the context of the two processes, RECOGNITION and 

1. Recognition of given data. This the computer 
will only ever do by a search process, and in the 
picture example may find even this an impos- 
sible task. The 'recognition' itself is only a 
simulation, with no meaning attached. I discuss 
'meaning' in a later article. 

2. Recall of data by association with given data 
(as putting a name to a face or recalling the ap- 
propriate conditions). Again the mind scores by 
immediately recognising the given data e.g. a 
staff name on a timetable, and in most instances, 
because of its facility with association, will iden 
lify the appropriate conditions. At least warning 
bells ring What is more, the mind copes with 
innumerable associations effortlessly. The com- 
puter must first search in order to recognise the 
given data. Then it will certainly identify any as- 
sociated conditions (either via direct pointer or 
via a further search) and apply them. 

II is clear from the above analysis that a programmer 
wishing to break new ground needs to give careful 
consideration to the problems outlined before getting too 
involved in detailed coding of what could prove an im- 
possible task. The user often wants the impossible - the 
speed and precision of the computer combined with ihe 
flexible, ad hoc decision capabilities of the mind. Where 
decision making is involved, you need to be sure you 
can identify, quantify and prioritise all the relevant fac- 
tors. You can then program the computer to 'look up' the 
best decision. That is the easy task - writing procedures 
to group, invoke or bypass any combination of con- 
ditions, all with the correct degree of priority. The 
difficult task is to make clear to a user how all these 
operations may be effected. The danger is that the 
prospective user might well find that the task is far 
simpler without the 'aid' of your program. 

A senior decision-maker is usually appointed for 
his/her experience and expertise- There will be a 
degree of responsibility and risk. Sensitive decisions may 
require skills that cannot be taught, requiring very fine 
appreciation of complex factors. Nothing has any real 
meaning for the computer meaningless data, mean- 
ingless rules for its handling, meaningless consequences. 
The decision to sell millions of shares and precipitate a 
stock market crash has no more significance than the 
decision to move Pawn to K4. For this reason alone, sen- 
sitive decisions must always be in the hands of respon- 
sible, understanding humans. 

The principle stated in the previous paragraph would 
still apply even if we created a machine that could 
simulate human thinking. In other words, we would have 
no use for such a machine. It is highly probable that 
such a machine would need to be a living organism. The 
status quo is a successful partnership - mind and com- 
puter complement one another perfectly: neither can be 
a substitute for the other. 

This section would not be complete without some 
comment on the creative capabilities of a computer. 
1 ne creative capabilities of a computer, as you might ex- 
pect, are precisely nil. Just as a competent artist can learn 
to paint 'in the style of another artist, or a musician to 
compose 'in the style of another composer, so with 
programming expertise it is possible to cause the com- 
puter to imitate existing works of art. But this is not to 
create works of art. Anyone who thinks it is, mistakes the 
shadow for the substance The mathematical analysis of a 
work of an is subsequent to the inspiration, not the in- 
stigator of it. The ability to analyse a work of art mathe- 
matically is a critical skill, not a creative one. For every 
creative artist there are thousands of critics. We may ad- 
mire the mathematical proportions of a building or a 
piece of music. But it is always other senses that have 
first confirmed that these proportions are to be admired. 
The artist who attempts to create a masterpiece out of 
mathematical concepts is putting the cart before the 
horse. (Dare I quote Scrialism in music?) 

As a tool for the writer, artist and musician, to say 
nothing of the architect, engineer, designer etc., the 
computer has opened new vistas. It is possible to use the 
computer lo compose/write/paint a work of art. It is not 
possible to cause the computer itself to create a 
worthwhile work of art. It might do so by accident 
though never by design, on the same principle that a 
team of monkeys might eventually type the works of 

My particular concern has been to establish the essen- 
tial differences between mind and computer. The 
similarities are nevertheless remarkable. The processor 
really docs calculate, it simulates awareness of the here 
and now, accepting input from any source that can be in- 
terpreted numerically, simulates recognition and recall, 
and therefore understanding. By constantly monitoring 
the system variables, it even simulates the subconscious, 
aware of the passage of time and of danger signals, albeit 
a limited, predefined set. 

In this dissertation I have tried to avoid speculative or 
controversial propositions; these 1 reserve for a later 
essay, where some of the topics touched in these pages 
are followed through. 

Draft Impression © CAA Press November 1987 

Reproduced by permission of ihe author, Bill Pcarce. 
Typeset by Irene Fiaxman using JustText Title created i*sing Maclaser 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 




iFfr— 7| 



SmartPad from Blyth 
Software Inc is reviewed 
by Keith Chamberlain. 



Find: ipngnin 

Dr. Hobi'fi Hutching* Goddard MB82-I34SI. Hmerlran 
physicist end engineer, u'ai the pioneer scientist and 
engineer who lold down the technical foundations for most 
of today'* prodigious developments In long range rockets, 
missiles, ear hi satellites and space Might. He founded a 
uinoie new field of science and engineering, now grown Into 
a multi-billion donar industry. 


Th« radio telescope ot Green Oonk, Uirglnlo, has a parabolic 
dish B5ft across. Its depth at the centre of the dish Is t Of i. 
Find ine distance of (he aerial ol the focus from the 
deepest p-olnt In the dish. 
Talcing (1) the origin u af the deepen pnim of the dltft; 

(2) lha Oh ami from to the aerial; 

(3) the Oy ami perpendicular to the Oh aim: 
the equation of the parabola In the nOy plane i'.: ■ 

This is a desk accessory which 
stores variable length textual in- 
formation which can be searched 

on any word 

or phrase 


Lite text Once 

installed you 
can cut and 
paste infor- 
mation, im- 
port tCxL filCS 
or directly 
type in to cre- 
ate a record 
wilhin a maxi- 
mum length of 

The power 
of SmartPad 
becomes ap- 
parent when 
after creating 
many entries, you need to find the one 
containing that name, address, recipe, 
appointment, etc. You simply lype in a 
word or phrase to be found, the power 
being that this does not need to be a key- 
word. Also searching for "To do" can be 
found by cither 'To do" or "Do to" and 
this is often handy to find a phrase you 
cannot remember exactly. 

A nice feature is the ability to import or 
export text files. The import opti on allows 
you to create muliipl c entries from a single 
text file by simply defining a delimiter, 
which can be any character or phrase up to 
a length of thirty characters. The reverse of 
this is to export the SmartPad entries to a 
text file again specifying a delimiter. The 
only problem being that you save all the 
current entries into a single file which if of 
variable length and detail makes reading 
into a spreadsheet or database file diffi- 
cult, but creates an ideal word processor 
Finally by searching for a specific entry 

you arc able to print an individual entry, 
which if you have set up the entry as a label 
format is great for printing address labels 
etc. A nice 

feature would 
have been to be 
able to print a 
selection from 
the entry, but 
this was not an 
option on the 
review copy. 
not a public 
domain desk 
accessory, this 
is a must for 
those of us 
who arc con- 
s t a ii i I y 
plagued by that 
telephone call 
in ihe midst of 

work and arc so used to losing that hastily 

scribbled note. 
Another excellent product from Blyih 

Software. / 


Product : SmartPad 
Publisher : Blyth Software Inc 
Available from : 

Price : 


Performance : 
Documentation : 




App!e2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


The Perfect Duo 





The Perfect Duo from 
Mindscape is made up 
of The Perfect Score 
and The Perfect College. 
They are reviewed here 
by Norah Arnold. 


A. Express x in terms of p. 

Solution: The quadrilateral can be 
divided into two triangles, so the sum of 
its angle measures is 2 * 180 = 360. 

x + 2/> + 2/j + p = 360, so x + 5p = 
360 and x= 360-5p. 

□ The Perfcci Duo from Mind- 
scape comprises The Perfect 
Score, Computer Preparation 
for the SAT, and bundled with it * free' The 
Perfect College. Unfortunately SAT 
means Hide or nothing to UK users. It 
stands for Scholastic Aptitude Test and as 
far as I can make out it is taken by Ameri- 
can children before entering college. 
Obviously, a SAT preparation program is 
not going to have the same meaning to UK 
students as it does to those in the USA who 
must pass this Scholastic Aptitude Test 
before entering college. This docs not 
mean thai it is useless to UK students, 
however, although it may be applicable to 
a slightly younger age group. 

The two disks and manual in this pack- 
age contain a comprehensive program of 
study and test-taking practice. Disk 1 
contains three study modules on Anto- 
nyms, Analogies and Sentence Comple- 
tion. Disk 2 contains two study modules 
on Reading Comprehension and Maths. 
Also on Disk 2 are two exams, a practice 
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and a 
practice Test of Standard Wriuen English 
(TSWE). The software requires a Macin- 
tosh computer with 128K or more, al- 
though it has not been tested on die SE or 
the Macintosh II. 

It was very di sappointing to find mat the 
disks were highly protected and could not 
be used from a hard disk. There is a cut 
down version of the system and finder on 
both of the two disks and the software 
would only run when one or other of the 
Perfect Score disks was used as die start- 
up disk. 

Disk 1 contains ten different sets of 
questions on antonyms and they take the 
following format: - 


A intelligence 

B restoration 

C apparition 

D reproach 

There is a check box next to the four 
answers so that you can make your choice 
as to the correct antonym, or d ircct oppo- 
site. In the sedion entided Analogies there 
a/e ten sets of questions for practice and 
they take the following format:- 


A violin: flute 

B tuba: wind 

C conductor: baton 

D playing: musically 

E principal: faculty 

Similarly, there are ten different prac- 
tice sets of questions for the Sentence 
Completion section and Lhey lake the form 
of sentences with one or more words 
missed out. in which the gaps must be 
filled with die most suitable choice of 

Thcmanual goes into very greatdetailas 
to how students should attack each typeof 
question, making sure dial even the most 
uncertain would feel confident ofstarung. 

The second disk contains die Reading 
and Math modules and the manual is abso- 
lutcly essential here. The Reading Com- 
prehension section only presents the ques- 
tion and multiple chioce answers on 
screen and you are expected to refer to the 
relevant reading passage in die manual. 
Similarly, the Maths section refers in parts 
to diagrams in the manual and it is a pity 
that they are not on screen. 

Each of the five study modules can be 
operated in two distinct modes. Learning 
and Testing. In Learning mode the com- 
puter carries on a 'dialogue' with the user. 
Each of die user's answers is followed by 
an appropriate response from the com- 
puter. Learning is encouraged after every 
response regardless of whedier the re- 
sponse was right or wrong. The 'free' disk 
The Perfect College gives a database of 
USA colleges and their facilities. The 
Perfect Score should not be rejected out of 
hand because it is American as ^ 
there is a lot of work in there. wk 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 


MIDI Interface 

Irene and Dave Flaxman bring news 
of a new product launched in the 
States - but when will we see it? 

The Apple MIDI interface for the 
Apple lies and Macintosh Family of 
computers of personal computers has 
one MIDI in-plug and one MIDI out- 
plug, making it suitable for a broad 
range of musical applications. 

The Apple MIDI interface measures 
3-inrhes long by 2-inches wide and ] 
1/4 -inches deep. It connects to one of 
the computer's serial ports via Apple's 
standard circular eight connector. 
MIDI instruments are connected to the 
interface via two, five-pin standard 
MIDI cables. 

MIDI-equipped instruments com- 
municate with the computer by send- 
ing a series of numbers over the con- 
necting MIDI cables. Each MIDI mes 
sage conveys a single musical event or 
piece of performance information 
such as the notes played, how they arc 
played and what special control de- 
vices are used to add nuances to the 
performance. Once the computer 
captures the information, it can be 
used as a sophisticated control or 
playback device to correct mistakes 
and experiment with different sounds 
and arrangements. 

Film & Video Work 

Macintosh and MIDI technology arc 
being used to synchronize music or 
special effects with moving images in 
film and video productions. In the 
past, a score or a set of sound effects 
created and sequenced to match the 
video events in a scene had to be 
painstakingly redone every time a 
change was made in the film or video 

Now the process is faster and easier 
using the computer and appropriate 
software to rearrange the sequence of 
sound events. 

Business & Productivity 

Professional musicians are also busi- 
ness people. The Macintosh is used as 
a business tool for word processing, 
electronic mail, client billings, equip- 
ment inventory, stage set-ups and 

many more tasks. 

The Music Market 

The Apple MIDI Interface also pro- 
vides new functionality for students 
and music enthusiasts who can learn 
about and experiment with music at 

According to the American Music 
Conference in a study conducted in 
1986, nearly half of the households in 
the United States own a musical instru- 
ment. All told, there arc more than 26 
million amateur and professional 
musicians in the United; States. Retail 
sales of musical-, instalments were 
$3-37 billion in 1986. this includes 
$1.35 billion in electronic instrument 
sales — 2.5 million keyboards esti- 
mated at $526 million, 350,000 synthe- 
sizers estimated at $275 million, and 
other electronic instruments. 

Music Education Market 

Teachers use computer-aided musi- 
cal instruction to enhance learning in 
music classes. Music education, which 
extends into the home, includes key- 
board skills, reading music, car train- 
ing, music theory, performance and 
composition. Aside from music skills, 
there is software available that lets 
musicians of any level explore the 
music world simply for the fun of it, 
and students or music enthusiasts who 
want to hook up to a MIDI-compatible 
instrument, there are programs that 
take advantage of musical capabilities. 


In performance training, using the 
appropriate software, the computer 
can "listen' 1 to and record input from a 
MIDI-equipped instrument. The com- 

puter can then play the music back 
and show where mistakes in notes and 
rhythm were made. 

Music Theory 

Grasping musical concepts like in- 
tervals, major and minor chords, and 
principles of harmony are easier when 
the student can use the computer for 
drill practice. The computer can rein- 
force concepts the teacher has pre- 
sented. The teacher is then freer to 
focus on more advanced instruction 
and the needs of individual students. 


The computer, MIDI technology and 
the appropriate software allow stu- 
dents to enter music at any speed, 
compose full pieces and hear them 
play back ai a normal speed. Music 
enthusiasts can create music without 
possessing advanced musical skills. 

Using the appropriate software 
music can also be printed in standard 
notation with proper markings. 


Music students, like professional 
musicians, can use the Apple IIGS or 
Macintosh, MIDI technology and the 
appropriate software to perform, 
compose, and edit an entire musical 


Creativity, learning and entertain- 
ment can be an facets of an 
individual's experience with computer 
music applications, personal com- 
puter and MIDI technology arc bring- 
ing new capabilities to the individual, 
making it easier to experiment with 
sound and music, and to create, con- 
trol and polish music composition. 


The source of the above information 
was the press releases given to those 
attending the launch of Apple's new 
MIDI interface. It was quite an event, 
but we were left asking the question: 
"Will we ever see this product in the 
UK?" Although Apple policy slates that 
all productswill be introduced simulta 
neously, worldwide, I'm afraid that the 
question was not answered! 


Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 




by Tom Wright 

Well here I am still wrestling with the new 
machine, the competition has been quite 
fierce on occasion with IT determined to 
remind me of how thick I am and me 
determined not to admit to it 

The screen display still dithers from 
time to time and I am keeping notes of the 
duration and frequency of this particular 
unspecified feature, is anybody else hav- 
ing this problem with a Mac ][ ? I have 
moved the Mac farther from the television 
and that seems to have reduced the prob- 
lem somewhat. No the answer isn't to 
simply remove the television from die 
room as 1 like to keep an eye on news 
broadcasts and Apple advertisements. 

My mistake in referring to the notepad 
as a "facility" in the last issue has been 
pointed out and my hand has been slapped 
for doing so, I admit that I should have 
called it a DESK ACCESSORY, my 
apologies to all the Mac maniacs, sorry 
perhaps 1 should have said afficionados. 
My final comment relative to the notepad 
DA is merely thai I have dumped it since 
in its flawed condition it can serve no 
useful purpose for me. 

One of the problems that I am experi- 
encing is associated with the 'paper white* 
screen display, although most of my 
friends seem very pleased with it I find that 
after working on the machine for any 
length of lime my eyes become quite tired. 
This is a problem that I do not experience 
on my steam powered Europlus due to the 
fact that the monitor display is 'negative'. 
When I worked in the reprographic trade I 
used to notice the same difference be- 
tween plates and films which bore images 
of positive and negative original docu- 
ments. The negative images produced 
from conventional documents were very 
easy on the eye when working on light 
boxes, etc., while the positive images 
which resulted from filming 'blueprints* 
always caused tired eyes if viewed in any 
volume. Perhaps one of the software 

houses will provide us (me) with an option 
for choosing positive or negative image 
for working on the Mac ][ screen. 

I was extremely pleased when die 
second Mbyte of RAM arrived a few 
weeks ago, my dealer gave it to me and 
assured me that it was easy to fit. When I 
removed the lid from the machine that 
evening I sal and wondered exactly where 
the four boards containing the extra RAM 
had 10 go, eventually I decided that they 
were probably destined for a location 
somewhere beneath the disk drives. This 
was confirmed by aphone call and 1 boldly 
set out to go where no Tom had gone 
before by removing the mounting which 
carries the hard and floppy disk drives. 
The locations when revealed were I sup- 
pose fairly easy to locate the RAM into, 
but the exercise aged me several years. 
However the RAM is now in place and the 
exercise is really a straightforward one., I 
did find the locations for a couple of the 
screws to be awkward when relocating the 
screws but I can't complain too much (be 
the first lime Wright !) since the design 
appears to be of a high standard generally. 

Despite the fact that I have (honestly) 
spent a number of hours studying the 
manuals that came with the machine, I ran 
into one problem in the form of a folder 
that I could not remove from the desktop. 
The folder in question could be placed on 
(in ?) the wastebin but every time that I did 
so a message appeared telling me that the 
file in question could not be removed as it 
was locked. Now don't laught you lot this 
Mac business is still very strange to me. 
Richard Wilday almost managed to sup- 
press a very broad smile over this and 
showed me how to unlock the file in ques- 
tion, ho hum. 

One of the oddities that I have encoun- 
tered appeared when I forgot to set the 
display to black and white before loading 
a file into SupcrPainL Anyone who has 
seen this done will smile as they picture die 

five miniature screens full of coloured 
'mush* which appeared along the top of 
the screen. No problem I thought and 
accessed the control panel to change the 
display to black and white. The odd thing 
is that as soon as the control panel ap- 
peared the file dial had been loaded into 
SuperPaint appeared properly beneath (ie 
ovcrlaidby) die control panel. If any of the 
boffins can explain why diis happens 1 
shall be most interested. 

The lighter side of the Mac )[ has made 
itself felt with a vengeance and I now have 
twenty six sounds in die system, whether 
pleased or displeased with me my machine 
can now let me know in a variety of ways, 
ranging from the supplied 'bong' .through 
a rendering of 'taps' to cows, dogs, and 
various other noises including an enquiry 
as to whether or not someone has nibbled 
an unmentionable pan of my anatomy. 

Happily I am beginning to learn key- 
board commands for various mouse con- 
trolcd features, so the time wasted while 
fiddling with the rodent is steadily reduc- 
ing. Obviously my lack of enthusiasm for 
the beast reflects the fact that most of my 
work with the machine is text handling, I 
understand the attractions of the thing 
when people spend a larger proportion of 
their time working with graphics, but, 
when I get time I shall investigate the 
'tracker ball* type substitute for the rodent. 
My reason for intending to do this is sim- 
ply that it looks as if it will offer a quicker 
and more positive alternative, possibly 
having more of the 'feel* of using a stylus. 
If anybody has already been down that 
road I shall be very interested in your 

Apart from many hours of experimen- 
tation (categorised as playing by my wife) 
I have also made the machine work fairly 
hard. It has now handled files containing 
well over a thousand pages of text, in 
addition to various graphic 
exercises (the most interesting 

April 1988 

Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 



of wh ich was an editing exercise on a post 
card from Florence Nightingale, purpose 
being to remove the images of various dirt 
and age impressions on the card, as well as 
to darken the faded parts of Miss 
Nightingale's handwriting). 

The worst panic to date occurred when 
I was trying some PD software and expe- 
rienced a total lock-up of EVERYTHING 
(Tcsseract). The only way that I could 
make the machine acknowledge me at all 
was to tarn the power off and on, following 
which I discovered that the hard disk 
appeared to have expired ! Well well, 
bless me, or words to that effect was my 
immediate reaction, visions of my previ- 
ous life began to pass before my eyes as I 
imagined my daughter's reaction to this 
catastrophe, she had been working for 
hours on a Garfield graphic and wouldn't 
be too impressed to find that her aged sire 
had wiped it out. A hasty (ic., panic 
stricken) call to Richard resulted in use of 
the hard disk update routine which re- 
stored everything lo good health. Reading 
that last bit I am beginning to wonder if I 
should have called this article "An Inno- 
cent (twit) Abroad", still he means well 
folks and if any of these 'disasters' help lo 
prevent anybody having a near miss with 
a coronary it will be worth it. One of the 
morals of this little saga is that I shall do as 
Norah Arnold says in future (if 1 don't 
forget) and test all new software from 
other than th ehard disk. 

Although a sample of LQ dot matrix 
output had indicated that it was capable of 
producing documents with sales potential, 
I have rapidly been convinced that laser 
output had far better commercial pros- 
pects; for that reason I have convened die 
original order for an LQ to a LaserWriter 
SC Experience has shown that although 
the SC does not have all the 'bells and 
whistles' it is quite capable of earning \\s 
keep and it will be upgraded as soon as the 
pennies have accumulated. The wider line 
output of the LQ is something that will 
have to be rcaddrcsscd at some time in the 
future, as it is obviously a useful commer- 
cial feature. I have discovered (old hat to 
some) that the 300 dpi resolution of the 
LaserWriter is a serious constraint for 
some applications, but they represent a 
limited minority of the applications that I 
have examined to dale and can safely be 
re-evaluated later (I hope). 

"ITjc SC arrived a couple of days ago, 
together with the extended keyboard, and 
after collecting them I settled down widi 
die SC and SCSI manuals to unpack and 
check everything. Eventually I began to 
actually assemble the beast until I discov- 
ered that both manuals insisted that I had to 
have cable terminators in the circuit, and 1 
hadn't got any cable terminators. A hasty 
call to Ccltip produced the statement thai 

I didn't need a terminator, was this all part 
of a plot or were those kindly folk really 
correct in saying that I didn't need a termi- 
nator ? THE bad mistake was men made by 
again reading boih manuals very care- 
fully, horror of horrors, as my SC would 
have to sil in a location several feet away 
from the Mac I would require cable ex- 
tenders, and, according to the manuals 
several terminators I Another call toCeltip 
made me aware that they did have ex- 
tenders in stock and yes 1 could pick them 
up whenever I wanted, plus furdier assur- 
ance that I didn't need terminators. As 
al ways full of confidence when setting out 
u> collect technical things (ie cables) I 
went armed with boih manuals. Arriving 
at Celtip I was not only assured lhat i 
didn't require terminators but that they 
didn't use them themselves. Eventually 
however, presumably in order to humour 
me, along with various extenders I was 
given a terminator which has been duly 
plumbed into the various lengths of cable 
which enable the Mac to converse with the 
SC. Very patient long suffering lot at 
Ccltip, thank goodness. 

I've tried a few pages of text through 
the SC so far and am delighted wiih the 
output, the tal k about the i mproved blacks 
available from the new engine are true. 
When I have lime to see what the SC 
makes of graphics I'll let you know. Now 
then how long will it take Lo make the thing 
earn enough for an upgrade ? 

As a newcomer to the general area of 
Macinlosh/Lascrwriier I am now going lo 
have to find sources for fonts suitable for 
use with thcSC, if anyone can recommend 
fonis/suppliers/dealers and give me some 
idea of pricing I shall be grateful. I have 
had one kind person offer to try and find 
me a source but the more the merrier for us 
all as I shall pass on anything that I find 
out. By the way the above offer was made 
by one of the demonstrators at the 
Apple2000 workshop held in Kiddermin- 

ster today, anybody in the area who rn issed 
it should kick themselves as it was very 
well organised and extremely informa- 
tive. My congratulations to Mike Davies 
who organised it and to all those people 
who helped, plus thanks lo Celtip for ro- 
viding die venue. 

One of the changes lhat has accompa- 
nied the upgrade is a regular subscription 
to MacUscr magazine (paid for by Mother 
Christmas) to replace my previous occa- 
sional purchase of dial publication. The 
saga associated wiih actually getting my 
hands on the magazine was a liulc worry- 
ing to say the least. The cheque and sub- 
scription order were sent on December 
12th 1987 (for a full 1988 subscription). 
Dennis Publications cashed the cheque on 
December 3 1st 1987 bull was still wailing 
to receive an issue of the magazine in 
February of this year. On February 5th I 
rang the circulation department and was 
assured Uiat die January and February 
issues would be posted to me within two 
days. On February 15th I rang the circula- 
tion department again lo tell diem dial I 
had slill not received anything, indicating 
a degree of displeasure during my conver- 
sation with them . The January and Febru- 
ary issues finally arrived a couple of days 
later, hooray ! 

BUT, after wailing so long for the 
things to arrive I was a somewhat amazed 
when on the same day, about two hours 
after the magazines arrived in fact, one of 
our more esteemed members turned up al 
my home and proceeded to pour a cup of 
lea all over the February issue ! ! All was 
noi lost however, we went to Celtip's 
of Heal opening later that day and Anne 
took pity on me and presented me wiih a 
replacement copy courtesy of Celtip, I 
now keep that copy un dcr lock and key i n 
a bank vault. The morale of this story 
appears to be that Mac users require a 
considerable amountof patience. 

Torn Wright is a II person - he now 

owns two IPs. An Apple II and a 

Macintosh II. 

His regular insights into his newfound 

machine hopefully keep us all 



Apple2000 - For all Apple Users 

April 1988 


Members Small 


48k Applell Europlus 


Apple II Mouse and Interface Card £46.00 

5 x Apple disk drives 
2 x disk controllers 

Linnet Modem £84.00 

Symbiotic 5meg Hard Disk and interlace 

2 x fan units 


U -Micro 16k ram/Language Card 


1 Mb RamWorks clone with 512k installed 

Apple parallel interface 


Videx Videoterm 80-column card 

Macintosh Plus 2MB, Qisk 21MB SCSI H/ 

Rana Elite Three 652K Drive and Controller 

Microsoft Z80 softcard 



Offers to Lee Harris 

External 8O0k drive. 

Spectragram RGB Card £43.00 

Reading u ,!i WMtuiruKi: 5pm to 9pm 

all books/boxes - as new.. 

New - The Print Shop with colour printing 

Wso padded Carrybag/lons of software/future 



advice freely given 

New - Printrix lastest version £10.00 

E2.500 Imagcwriter poss. available 

Pinpoint Toolkit £28.00 

IIGS Specific Software 

Print Shop Lovers Utility Set £12.00 

Tower of Myraglen £25.00 

Telephone i^Mfy<(»i><i|flffli 

143K 5.25" Disk Drive £55.00 

The Music Studio£25.00 
Shanghai £15.00 ? 


All the above prices include Postage. 
Apple enhanced He computer with Twin Disk 

Tass Times in Tonetown £1 5.00 


II drives and controller, 64K 80 Column Card, 

Hacker II £15.00 

NEC 12" green screen monitor, Clip-On 

Other Apple II Software 

Macintosh 51 2K, 400k internal drive, mouse, 

Cooling Fan, etc. Offers around £420.00 

California Games (128K) £15.00 

software, in vgc £800 

Apple II Europlus computer 64k 80 Column, 

Bards Tale I (64K) £15.00 

/e Z80 card (Cirtech) new £30: 

Clock Card, Disk II drive and controller. NEC 

MagiCalc £15.00 

Citizen MSP 10E dmp 1 60 draft 40 NLQ as 

12" green screen monitor, Comms Card and 

Zorkll £10.00 

new still 1 yr guarantee left £280; 

1200/75 modem, etc, Offers around £220.00 

Hitchhikers Guide £10.00 

Blue, Red, Green, Silver ribbons for the 

Ultima III £10.00 

above (group 273) little used £15 the lot; 

Telephone Paul ici-mi ru- 

Transylvania £7.50 
The Quest £7.50 

Cirtech Champion printer l/F and lead for II+/ 

Death in the Caribbean £7.50 

Bards Tale for ll+/e £12; Missile Defense 


Temple of Apshai £7.50 

l+/e £8; Galactic Wars {strategy game 2 

Full documentation and all original disks 
Part postage 50p per program (max £1.50) 

Telephone Peter Green, 

Chandlers Ford \\ft\v.\ wi (evenings) 


Fujitsu Hi-Res Printer. 120 column dot- 
matrix. Parallel & Serial interfaces. 
Value about £500 - Ideal for IBM PC or 
compatible. Exchange for ImageWriter (II). 
Original IBM & Apple He software available 
as part of package i.e. Omnis 2or3. 
Word Perfect, MathPian. 

Please contact Gordon Owen. 

...imiUn M ttllit 

■ :::■.:; 

player ll+/e £12; Microchess 2.0 ll+/e £8; 

Apple Adventure n+/e £8; Bridge Partner 

(Personal Soft) ll+/e £10; FastDOS 


Offers considered all in vgc and can be seen 

working, all with manuals and original 


Telephone Martin on 


Apple He enhanced, twin 5.25 drives, 1 .2 MB 
Ram extended 80-Co!umn Card with serial 
and Parallel and RGB (Video) interfaces. 

£545. could split. 

Also available ■ many other items including 

Mouse and publications. 

Contact Mike on: 
'tniii; tifiiiiiiii ttiifti»||iii#j< 
For a full list & Details 

Members Small Adverts are FREE. 

He reserve (he right to edit and or omit them. They are placed 
in this section in good faith. Anple'iOOO holds no responsibility 
over item advertised and buyers purchase at there own risk. 
Send to the IMMftox marked "SMALL ADVEIIT". 

Taiwan 64K Apple li+. 2 Monitors, 2 Disc 
Drives, 2 Disc driver cards, 3 Z80 cards, 2 80 
column cards, 2 Language cards, 2 Printer 
cards, Printer buffer card, Super serial card, 
Eprom writer card, Serial Interface card, 
Virtual disc card. Spare power supply, 2 
fans, 3 joysticks, extra keyboard, 2 Monitor 
swivels, some software, 1000 spare discs, 
manuals, £450.00 ono 

Telephone n:i:;:it mi:?? evenings) 


Paradise Systems 10 MB (Non-SCSI) Hard 

Drive for 128/512 Macintosh. 

Boxed as new, totally reliable £300 o.n.o 


Michael on I'm ■■:■■ m 


Macintosh 800k External Drive. Beige 
Bought September 1987 
£180 + Postage o.n.o 


Saari Omar 

'Mi tiwiftiHif (daytime) 

April 1988 

Apple2O00 - For all Apple Users 


Bridge House •Wellington ♦Somerset • TA210AA 

Phbne 082-347-3625 • FAX 082-347-3477 

Phone lines open Irom 10.00am to 6.00pm, Monday to 
Friday. Orders are poat-lree in UK lor orders wilh n«t 

value over tlOO (1sl class recorded post) Pay by 

Cheque, Access, American Express or Visa. V.A.T. is 

not included in prices; please add when placing order. 

Product pricing and availability subject to change 

without notice. Foreign orders welcome. E&Ob. 

Quality Mac Software at 
Unbeatable Prices 

(And it we don'i pott H to you In 7 day* (14 
for hardware), wVH taka 5% on* lha prlcaft) 


List MacSott 
PriCQ Prlc«> 

List MacSott 

Price Price 

List MacSoft 
Pncg Price 

List MacSott 
Price Prlco 




FileMaker Plus 


The finest form design 

capabilities in an e<i>y- 

to-u»*'<ind powerful 

database with many 

unique features. 

Offer valid during 

April IWrtonly 

Look out for this month's 


(Indicated with "•■J 


Icon Technology 

MttAuthor C1S0.0O 





^, * <w Apche Strke LU 35 
115,00 Beyond DarkCsU 04iE5 
Dark Castle G4J6 

£17.50 Cenlurly Schoolbook, Optima, 
£27.50 ITC Souvenir, ITC Lubalin 

07.50 Graph, ITC Garainonu, ITC 

£27.50 rVnguiat/TTC Friz Quad j: *la, 

£24500 £165.00 Dia.DarkRoom*£195.W £145.00 Clypha, Helvetica Li^t/KauV, 
Ench. Sceptres £24.95 £17.50 TrSmp Mediaeval. MeUor. ITC 
Silicon Press £S4£5 £37.70 Calliard, ITC Ba»k«vrt>, ITC 

Living Videotex! 

MORK £195.00 £149.00 


Maze Ware* £43.95 

ViducWorksn £195.00 £145.00 world Builder £4935 

Super 3D C19S.00 £145.00 Kohnna, Coudy Otdstyl*. 





A ii inity 


IASQ.00 £375.00 


•Basic (Cmp.) £150 00 
Basic Ontrp.) £75 00 
; Chart £95.00 

•Excel £595.00 

•File £150.00 

Flight Simulator £45.00 
Mail 1-4 users £195.00 
Mail 5-10 uwre £345.00 £249.00 HyperDA 
Maill 1-20 users£495.00 £349.00 pg&MBasa 
Mail 71-32 users£645.00 £499.00 
PowerPoint £295.00 
•Word V3 £235.00 

•Works £295.00 

Sup3DEnhn«d* Q25.00 £245.00 riCCheltonham, Bodino, Letter 
£34.50 Superpaint £9935 £69.00 Gothic, Prestige Elite, News 

£37.50 Gothic, Tiffany, Cooper Black, 

Slcncil/I lobo/Brushacript, and 
««« Aachen/Rcvuc/UR/FS 
OWB each are 050.00 £125.00 

ITC Zapf Chancery /Dingbats, 
£44.00 ITC American Typewriter/ 
£4i.oo Machine, Century Old Style 

Roman, and Orator 

Software Concepts 

£99-00 Computer Atlas £4935 
£60.00 , „ . 

£70.00 Software Supply 
£199.00 Power Station £59,95 
£99^00 Suitcase £5955 

0500 Symmetry 






£45.00 Chainpion Bxing£26^5 

£249.00 ComicWorks 

£594)0 GATO 



Borland Orblter 

Reflex Plus £19935 £175.00 ShadowGate 

Sidekick £99.95 £57.50 Uninvited 

Turbo Pascal £9935 £57.50 

as 95 

Micro Analyst 
Center Point Software Mac Zap ££0.00 

Copy D Mac £3935 £22.00 ^^ ^ 

Cricket Software FileMaker rius £145.00 

Cricket Draw £295.00 £195.00 
Cncket Graph £175.00 £117.50 «uar* 
CncketPresentsM95.00 £395.00 *P ress 

£199.00 MacAmcnca 

£199.00 -Scoop £445,W 

««•« T/Makcr 

Click Art £4935 

£19.50 C/ A PostScript £129.95 
£19.50 WriieNnw £125.00 

£&£ Think Technology 
mS0 Capps Prme £$3S 
£19.50 HFS Navigator £39.95 
fSJ-fO mBoK £350-00 

£*g LaserSpeed £65.00 

2*2 L/SOfece £325.00 
aWB UghtSpeedC C11S.00 
LighSp Pascal £85.00 

uukan £120.00 £100.00 

09,00 Sonata, Carta and Park Avenue 
' each are £75.00 £60.00 

Thae arc prices for sjHgfa prmUr*. 
For mu/tipk printers, our prices are 
£310.00 approximately twice single prices. 
Call for drtuil, 

£30.00 Casady 

£85.00 Fluent Laser Fonts £69.95 £4X50 






Data Tailor 
Trapeze V2 


£295.00 Adobe Typeface* 

Helvetica Condensed 

t&SM £499,00 ■*•"■ £302.00 

£695 00 «WJB r r CFranWm Gothic 

Silicon Beach Software tack art (21700 £195.00 

£175 00 Acc.Pakl £2955 £15.00 Palatino, TIC Bookman, New 

_ Rodime SCSI hard disks are the 

£42.50 industry standard. 
£225.00 Built here in the UK, these 
£90.00 drives are used by Apple 
£69.00 themselves. You are buying the 

very best, with full 12-month 


For Mac SE and It only 
£265.00 45QRX(45Mb) £650 
For Mar \l only 
1000RX( 100Mb) €1060 



Lfst MacSofi 
Price Prlco 

External 20 Mb 
Rodime S20 + 
SCSI drive for 


In attractive matching unit 
that sits neatly unoVr Mac 

Plus or SU. I(y popular 
demand, we're continuing 
litis olli-r through April 'K8 

l400RX(140Mb>£I295 £975 

tor oil Macs with SCSI port 
S20+ (20Mb) £575 £385 
S45+ (45Mb) £825 £545 
S60f (60Mb) C89S £595 
SlOO+OOOMb)£I195 £925 
S140+(I40Mb)£1395 £1045 
S540+(540Mb)£9995 £7995 
Memory 'KAMI Upgrades 
Guaranteed hgh quality 
memory upgrades for your Mac 
at prices you can r l afford to 
turn down. Full instructions 
included, or send your Mac to 
us tor fitting (£50 extra) 
Add 1Mb to Plus£34 a £249 
Add2MbtoPlus,SE,II Call 
Add4MbtoPlus^r-,I! Coil 

'As soon as available. 

'Unless program not yet released, 

discontinued, or bale subject to 

iheaue clearance. 

instant art 

Ready-To-Use Graphic Disks 

Gallery ; Usetul pictures.borders, maps, trademarks et. 

Symbols Tourism. Animate, Farming, Programming etc. 

Hands: Tradesmen, Food. Leisure etc 

Food & Drink: Illustrations ol Food and Dnnk. 

Display Font* Decorative lettering (inc.Mustc & Border Fonts) 

UK Atlas: Roads, rivers, railway s.airports.counties, cities 
etc (Inlcuding London Underground map) 

One instant Art (Aft cows £29, t*o cost £56; throo cost C8t; 
tour cost £104; Ike cost C12S; and all so cost El**. 

Instant business forms 

Over 40 ready tc-uee business forms designed Tor UK useis. 

Includes spaces for company logo, address, VAT no . eic. 

SpocKly MacPaint. PICT, or PageMaker Mmui CMS C49 

Intiani mamptof disk tor only O5-00 

Instant Art now available as 

StackWar© for HyperCard. 

Call for details. 

LaserWriter-compatible fonts that download 
automatically for immediate use. 

G rev Fonts 

Now you can print In 9 grty shadoa on your UttrWHttr! 

E«ch pWwqo cellar* nr» dtr&snl yey tfuaes to ** Ikm kni you wail 

Grw1-f*ifcav*UM«rau* fta* MMEa, Av*itG*tf«. Bccfcmuv. N »Ww*« 

Hatgm P^UIno, SpnW 4 Z»l DinqbaB Ml ff* usual Of* tV*^ 1 JvaW*. «u* a* 

BcM lUTc, UnMW«. OuSne. A ^aAw 

I Gmf or* (out rest ? as tM J cost £ 134, 4 cos Ci 69. 5 con fi 59, 5 cost C2M, 

7 COSt 1244. i»IB cost C2S9 


GhoatFonta allow you to print LatarWrtter lontt at 
backgound, or ahad«d text without outllrwe. 

t^ottfoiBcofMinuoSt, Uedkjmi DatVtfudw Ba^toMmlMWrUiri 
B»*n«*l(*ifwmimg«»it*aarncseg Pa^M*«.M-J><w.S*«rPajnL 

GnaiFoTO tarm UmWnHr »«*«*» rUMcft rrn« s SjmM s cos* MS, 

Ghosf oio la t* itstrWriur «us also rxtooet Avant Gar». P*«rw BwWrian 

L*$\*K » Htt/aotM Natom i aais CM 

NEW!! Fraction Fonts 

FractlonFonta albw you to Include fractloni 

In itsndard LasarWriler fonts. 

ftxlenhantt br .-» lasarWnw Irxtotms H*v*im Ti>ws & 9mW 1 1 costs C4S, 

ftM tpftwB fir f* UstrWnw Pw dsaixMss AvvHGvit*, P^tro, 

Booivnm. Q9attM, * W"W Nmtm. a oxb raft 

All our PostScript fonts are now fully compatible 
with Mac SE, Mac II, and LaserWriter II 

Get on our mailing list - hear 

about our Darqains first! 

There's not much time UMt 

to take .iilvjiit jj^e of 


(Formerly UK TarCatc) 

Di) you enj oy paying taxes? 

If not, you ruwd TAXMAN 

Now with TAXMAN you uin accu- 
rately calculate your own Ux bill, and 
U-arn how to claim all ihv jllowantos 
you're in iiiK-d to 

TAXMAN is available NOW tor Mai 
jnd MS- |)(>S a> templates lor 
I'ixu'NMaO »ii»1 l^us 12^ (MS IX)S>, 
pnci* C5**9S Kc^ystcrvd umt> will be 
abU' to upf-radi- annualy at half price. 

Qum%C tlic ifrfiis m your favour 


Software it costs NOT to buy? 

th-xlatmrruir nukrrw tvarruntya&to 
tit < urat y or fitness for purpttSf 

No matter 
which Mac you've got 
we'll make it work faster. 

You want more speed from your Mac. Less 
unit.' waiting, more lime working. Now your 
ilram is reality whether you've a new MacII 
in .1 I2HK of legend 

MaW ^^oUf* ^ un V im '^" vviln ^ JC " 
rr5 performance hy slotting in 
Dty >C • ,| K . jurho SE Fverything 
„■* runs :u least twice as fast; 
"aster than many (i802o 

1 128K owners... we'll get you 
to 512R, and then add 
TurboMax) Conned your 
SCSI hard disks directly 
through the superspced ,scsi 
p<»rt. No mods to the 51 2K 
case- the SCSI port exits from the batten 

| lore **y 


Bigger software- bigger memory. 

,. , ril U r.^rCv^K weal new software 
l o-pr,K,ss,,r op mm nms W u, Jf O^A^ v.m arc K „ inK u. nerd 

^•BIPv ^£ scanning, and mam 
other programs, loo. 1Mb is not enougl 


And we use the ultimate in com- 
patibility (the same 68000 processor yout Mac 
uses only twice as fast) your Max software 
wort crash Unlike the 68020 hoards Soyoui 
data i> m safe hands. 

And at £449.00 that's irresistible. 

Willi Tiuih)\1;i\ you gel 
mow ^ncce! plus more 
memory.,., 2 to 3 limes 
fester, 2MB ol menu in, 
upgradeable to 4MB. 

R \Mdisk contents are 
protected, so you can safely work on your 
programs ana data at memory speeds There"! 
i superspeed SCSI and the ohhhi maths co- 
processor option makes spreadsheets land 
Olhei SANE programmes) run (i<) to 100 times 
faster Thctcs ;i lug screen attachment, too, 

Of course, it s as crash pr<Kif as the Turin) 
SK Fiis in minutes uiihoui modifying the Mac 
jiuI it costs iinK £1,19$ 

TurhoMax also re-enhances the 512K Rn- 
handed for an amazing performance. 

hut you just can't risk fitting second-rate; 

memory. YOU put a lot of work at stake when 

intermittvnts crash your system tas thev will) 

So MacMemory offers you crash-proof 
memory wiih MaxPlus 2x4S surface mounted 
megabit chip modulo meeting or exceeding 
Apples own standards m every respect. 

y>hi ii feel safer knowing your MacMemory 
enhancements use firs.1 quality chips mm the 
cheaper production rejed units used by some 
Others), and are 100% tested at each stage and 
arc even Riven a final "2 hour hum m in an 
actual Mac No-one else lakes ilus much 
trouble to gne you enor-frce; perfofntancd 
a 4w8 $a MaxPlus 2x4S take your SE 
" ?=X "*- I" 2.5MB (and onto -1MB). 

Ok. ~> j support all Apple siandard 
£^_j$pj adctons and also plugs into 
^f^lto/P Turbo SF \ ? o modificalmns 
are required ol any kind 

Mac Plus upgrades economically to 2Mb 
and onto -iMh without any mods, Your ey«rv 


need is catered for with different modules, in- 
cluding big screens 
14-MB £7}*o \m\W love whal the Max2 
l3>_7t; " d(K ' s for vour ^1-K; Max2 

gives 2Mb, upgrades 10 1MB, 
and works with old or new 
ROMs and allows a SCSI port 
to In* film I when you're ready 
fc**«r$w-^& You're not alone - we star- 
ted off with 12HK'stoo!So 
don't send yours to the 
knackers yard. We'll take you 
to t!2K- and then Max2 or TurhoMax promise 
you a new world of speed and software. 
Af*4 ^^pXJ Y()U nw d more than 1MB 
m im c j£? ZZr£ io do anything useful and 
^Vt5 MaxPlus 2x4S takes vou to 

Remember, even your 
beautiful MacD will crush, 
no matter how fast, through intermittent* if 
you fit n(«-()uiie-inilusir\-si.nuLir<i mentor) 
Treat your wonder machine to MacMcffiOr) 
It's crash proof! 

Hardware is hardware. But support tor n 
can range irnrn lotal" t<> non-existenf. 

MacFurojH's is total All the laiililies vou 
expect from a major manufacturer. 

And we work dosel) with only the best 
dealers, You can expea and get the best set 
vice in the industi) (Ask om customersu...) 
Call Colette Fanning on 

(OG03) G30636lor more info, 

super datasheets and details 

of where you can see our 
pnxliiciN in action 

MacMemory from 

Tia*««Mj« MattHu*. Mj»KAM.AU«Pnm arc inMkmirfcfc -,i MnAk'mofy Inv 

The Granary. Trowae Bridge. Brac&ndale. 
Norwich NR1 2EG. England. Tel: (O603) 630636 

Fax: 0603 630374 


Abaton Technology Corporation 

7901 Stoneridge Drive. Suite 500 

Pleasonton CA 94566 

Why an Abaton Scan300/SF or Scan300/FB scanner with C-Scan 1.6 
is the only choice for graphics scanning with the Macintosh. 



Abaton C-Scan 1 .6 software 
introduces TRUE grey- scale 
scanning lor the first time for a 
desktop computer. 

To see how it differs from the 
rest, we've included an example - 
an image scanned from a 
photograph, like you've never 
seen it before! 

Picture 1 shows the picture at 
full-scale, exactly as scanned. 

In the second picture, we've 
expanded a small area of the 
same image, showing how well 
it's appearance is preserved even 
when blown up three -fold. 

Finally, the third picture blows 
up the image twice more, to let 
you see the secret of this 
magnificent clarity - only now 
just visible are the individual 
pixels that come together to 
make the 16-level (4-bit) true 
grey-scale image that no other 
scanner system can offer. 

There are no special tricks here - 
the picture is completely 
unretouched. and printed on a 
Linotron printer. 

And its the only scanning 
system that produces images 
that let you use the full power of 
Letraset's Image Studio graphics 

Abaton products are distributed 
in the UK exclusively by 


The MacSerious Company 

17 Park Circus Place Glasgow G3 6AH 

Phone 041-332-5622 Fax 04 1 -332-3209 

Telex 777021 1HACSER